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Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Planar Lightwave Circuits Based on Silicon Nanowire Platform
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. (Photonics and Microwave Engineering)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical devices based on Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) technology have well been studied due to their inherited advantages from Integrated Circuits (IC), such as: small size, high reliability, mass production and potential integration with microelectronics. Among all the materials, silicon nanowire platform gains more and more interest. The large refractive index difference between core and cladding allows tremendous reduction of the component size. This thesis studies theoretically and experimentally some integrated optical devices based on silicon nanophotonic platform, including echelle grating demultiplexers and photonic crystals.

Some of the numerical methods are introduced first. Scalar integral diffraction method is efficient for calculating the diffraction efficiency of gratings. Beam propagation method and finite-difference time-domain method are also introduced, for simulating the light propagation along the devices.

The fabrication technology and characterization methods are described. The fabrication steps involve: plasma assisted film deposition, E-beam lithography, RIE-etching. All these steps are proceeded under cleanroom environment. The characterization is mainly based on two methods: end-fire coupling and vertical grating coupling. The grating coupler is more efficient compared with the butt-coupling between fiber and nanowires, but is worse solution for final packaging.

Two types of components have been realized and characterized with the above technology. The echelle grating demultiplexer is one of the key components in WDM networks. A method for increasing the diffraction efficiency based on total internal reflection is applied, and a significant improvement of the diffraction efficiency of more than 3dB is achieved. A novel cross-order echelle grating-based triplexer, a bidirectional transceiver for application in the Passive Optical Networks (PON), has been designed and fabricated, which can multi/demultiplex three channels located at 1310nm, 1490nm and 1550nm. Polarization dependence issue of echelle grating demultiplexers has been studied. Two polarization compensation schemes have been proposed, which are for the first time polarization insensitive designs of echelle grating demultiplexers based on silicon nanowire platform.

Photonic crystal devices are also addressed in the thesis. There has been little research on the photonic crystal cavity based on pillar type. A silicon pillar type photonic crystal cavity has been fabricated with the measured Q value as high as about 104, and with an extremely high sensitivity for the changing of the background material or the effective diameter of the pillars. This kind of structure has the advantage on sensing applications compared to the air-hole type structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , 62 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP, 2009:5
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10620OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10620DiVA: diva2:221400
Public defence
2009-06-12, C1,Electrum 1, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100820Available from: 2009-06-04 Created: 2009-06-04 Last updated: 2011-11-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A hybrid modeling for the theoretical analysis of reflections in a multimode-interference coupler based on silicon-on-insulator nanowires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A hybrid modeling for the theoretical analysis of reflections in a multimode-interference coupler based on silicon-on-insulator nanowires
2008 (English)In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 281, no 11, 3099-3104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A hybrid method combining the three-dimensional (3D) beam propagation method (BPM) and a 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented for the simulation of multimode-interference (MMI) couplers based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowires. This hybrid method makes it possible to have a robust analysis for the reflection properties while avoiding a time-consumed computation with a simplex 3D-FDTD simulation. The reflected power is sensitive to both the length and the width of the MMI coupler and thus one should choose the optimal values for good self-imaging. Furthermore, the reflection could be reduced by introducing tapers between the MMI section and the access waveguides.

Keyword
multimode-interference coupler, finite-difference time-domain method, beam propagation method, reflection, taper
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17508 (URN)10.1016/j.optcom.2008.01.061 (DOI)000255575400014 ()2-s2.0-41849146040 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Total internal reflection type echelle grating demultiplexer based on amorphous silicon nanowire platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Total internal reflection type echelle grating demultiplexer based on amorphous silicon nanowire platform
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Hangzhou, 2008, Vol. 7134Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present measurement results of an ultracompact echelle-grating demultiplexer based on silicon-on-insulator nanowire platform, in which we introduced a total internal reflection design of the grating facets to improve the diffraction efficiency. An average increase of the diffraction efficiency with 3.7dB is observed for the 3 channels compared to a normal design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hangzhou: , 2008
Keyword
Arrayed waveguide grating, Diffraction efficiency, Etched diffraction grating, Silicon-on-insulator, Total internal reflection, Demultiplexer, Echelle gratings, Measurement results, Arrayed waveguide gratings, Demultiplexing, Microsensors, Nanowires, Reflection, Refractive index, Textile fibers, Waveguides, Amorphous silicon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24175 (URN)10.1117/12.802558 (DOI)2-s2.0-62449154570 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2010-08-19 Created: 2010-08-19 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
3. Etched diffraction grating demultiplexers with large free-spectral range and large grating facets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Etched diffraction grating demultiplexers with large free-spectral range and large grating facets
2006 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 18, no 24, 2695-2697 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A design for etched diffraction grating demultiplexers is presented to obtain both large grating facets and a larger free-spectral range (FSR) using the optimal chirped diffraction orders for different facets. The large grating facets by using a large diffraction order contribute to lowering the manufacturing difficulty, and can provide lower polarization-dependent loss. However, usually the large diffraction order must lower the FSR of the device by all means. Based on the present design, the FSR can overlay the whole diffraction envelop for a special order, but avoid the influence of the adjacent diffraction envelops. Calculations indicate that the extinction ratio between the operated order and adjacent orders can attain a 35 dB or so, which makes the crosstalk from channels in adjacent envelops to those in the operated diffraction envelop acceptable.

Keyword
Demultiplexing, diffraction order, free-spectral range (FSR), gratings, optical planar waveguide components, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24176 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2006.888046 (DOI)000243173300166 ()2-s2.0-33845863719 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2010-08-19 Created: 2010-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Experimental demonstration of a cross-order echelle grating triplexer based on an amorphous silicon nanowire platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental demonstration of a cross-order echelle grating triplexer based on an amorphous silicon nanowire platform
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 34, no 3, 383-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ultracompact silicon-on-insulator-based echelle grating triplexer. It is based on the cross-order design, which utilizes different diffraction orders to cover a large spectral range from 1.3 to 1.5 mu m with three channels located at 1310, 1490, and 1550 nm and with a footprint of 150 mu m X 130 mu m.

Keyword
passive optical network, wave-guides, design, circuit
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18212 (URN)000263755800054 ()2-s2.0-59249101711 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Technology challenges for monolithically integrated waveguide demultiplexers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technology challenges for monolithically integrated waveguide demultiplexers
2009 (English)In: CHINESE OPTICS LETTERS, ISSN 1671-7694, Vol. 7, no 4, 315-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A short overview of integrated waveguide demultiplexers for different applications ill future highly integrated optical communication systems is presented. Some fabricated devices based on amorphous silicon nanowire technology are described.

Keyword
design
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18516 (URN)10.3788/col20090704.0315 (DOI)000266970900014 ()2-s2.0-65749085313 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-01-25Bibliographically approved
6. Design of a polarization-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexer based on silicon nanophotonic wires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of a polarization-insensitive echelle grating demultiplexer based on silicon nanophotonic wires
2008 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 20, no 9-12, 860-862 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A polarization-insensitive design of an echelle grating (or etched diffraction grating) demultiplexer based on silicon nanowires is proposed in the present letter, by introducing a polarization compensation area in its free propagation region. The polarization-dependent wavelength shift of the present device has been compensated at the whole spectral range. For a design with nine channels and 10-nm channel spacing, when the wavelength shift at the central channel 1550 nm is. completely compensated, the wavelength shifts of the two edge channels are only 0.14 and 0.15 nm, which are acceptable.

Keyword
arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), etched diffraction grating (EDG), polarization compensation, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), photonic wires, wave-guides
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17628 (URN)10.1109/lpt.2008.921839 (DOI)000256966100065 ()2-s2.0-67149142269 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. A pillar-array based 2-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pillar-array based 2-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, 241110- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experimental results are presented for a high quality factor cavity based on pillar arrays. The cavityis formed from a square lattice of silicon pillars of finite height. The quality factor of the fundamental mode is about 7300 when the cavity is in air and 7800 when it is immersed in water.Since a pillar array has a large percent of connected void space and confines TM modes effectively,it has great promise for use in numerous areas including biochemical sensing and quantum cascade lasers.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24179 (URN)10.1063/1.3152245 (DOI)000267166600010 ()2-s2.0-67649159193 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100820

Available from: 2010-08-20 Created: 2010-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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