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Dynamic At-stop Real-time Information Displays for Public Transport: Effects on Customers
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6817-781X
2007 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 41, no 6, 489-501 p.
Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dynamic at-stop real-time information displays are becoming more and more ubiquitous in modern public transport. Reactions and attitudes towards these systems are very positive. But there is a need to provide a comprehensive framework of the possible effects that these kinds of displays can have on customers. The seven main effects described in this paper are: (A) reduced wait time, (B) positive psychological factors, such as reduced uncertainty, increased ease-of-use and a greater feeling of security, (C) increased willingness-to-pay, (D) adjusted travel behaviour such as better use of wait time or more efficient travelling, (E) mode choice effects, (F) higher customer satisfaction and finally (G) better image. Two studies are presented in this paper. Study I supports and proves that perceived wait times can be reduced by 20% by employing a before-after implementation evaluation study with questionnaires on a tramline. Study II shows the effects of real-time displays on behaviour in the form of adjusted walking speeds, by using a behaviour observation method in a subway station. The effect framework does not claim completeness and many effects are related to each other. However, the framework is a useful basis for designing evaluation studies and provides arguments in favour of at-stop real-time information displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2007. Vol. 41, no 6, 489-501 p.
Keyword [en]
Public transport traveller information, Real-time information, User reaction, Customer satisfaction, Wait time, Evaluation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10896DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2006.11.006ISI: 000245864100001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-33847730319OAI: diva2:228415
QC 20100621Available from: 2009-07-30 Created: 2009-07-30 Last updated: 2010-09-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ease-of-Use in Public Transportation: A User Perspective on Information and Orientation Aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ease-of-Use in Public Transportation: A User Perspective on Information and Orientation Aspects
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This interdisciplinary thesis combines psychological and transportation planning knowledge. Three main questions are investigated: 1) What concepts and ideas do people have with regard to a public transportation system (cognitive user perspective)?; 2) What orientation and information factors within the public transportation system enhance Ease-of-Use and make it simpler and more efficient to use public transportation in metropolitan areas?; 3) How can Ease-of-Use of a public transportation route be measured?

A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Between 2002 and 2007 a total of nine different studies were conducted: An in-depth study on a single exchange student, an interview study with exchange students, a questionnaire study on exchange students, a before-after interview study with travellers on selected bus stops, an before-after telephone interview study on residents, an expert questionnaire study via email, a behaviour observation study on travellers, a before-after questionnaire study on travellers on a tram line, and an on-board questionnaire study.

To analyse the cognitive user perspective the term memory representation was introduced, that includes cognitive maps of and additional knowledge about a public transportation system such as service frequency. Memory representation is influenced by experience. Three learning phases in an unknown public transportation system are proposed and a general information search script is described. A new approach is presented regarding the organisation of public transportation knowledge: The ground level is that there exists a public transportation option, the next level is the identification of the mode of transport and at the highest level of the hierarchy is the code for the line. Within the second level, the public transportation mode, a hierarchical structure of public transportation option knowledge is proposed. Three factors are postulated that contribute to the extent to which a line is represented in people’s memory: visibility, straight route layout and labelling.

Which orientation and information factors within the public transportation system enhance Ease-of-Use, i.e. match the cognitive user perspective? It was found that trunk bus lines enhanced Ease-of-Use and at-stop real-time information can have various positive effects. The role of good maps is explained and stretched and the importance of consistent information throughout the travel chain is also pointed out. In addition, many valuable concrete hints are given with regard to how to match the system properly with the cognitive user perspective. Undoubtedly, an interaction exists between system and user and they influence each other. This is where the third research question comes in: How can Ease-of-Use in public transportation systems be measured? The iterative process of defining and measuring Ease-of-Use resulted in a scale that measured the defined concept well with good reliability and validity. The final discussion highlights the contribution to science of this thesis and presents some possible paths for further research. The thesis consists of a summary and eight papers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 57 p.
Trita-TEC-PHD, ISSN 1653-4468 ; 08:001
public transportation, user perspective, psychology, public transportation planning, evaluation, newcomers in a city
National Category
Civil Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4696 (URN)978-91-85539-29-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-05-23, Hall F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
QC 20100621Available from: 2008-04-09 Created: 2008-04-09 Last updated: 2010-09-24Bibliographically approved

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