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Feasibility study of CO2 removal from pressurized flue gas in a fully fired combined cycle: the Sargas project
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS, 2005, 703-710 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article a novel concept for CO2 removal from power plants is discussed from a systems perspective. The main advantage of the process is that the investment cost and the power penalty for CO2 removal can be substantially reduced compared to conventional combined cycles. The proposed technical solution comprises fully fired combined cycle, which minimizes the amount of flue gas. Furthermore, the CO2 absorption is performed at pressurized conditions prior to the expansion, which further enhances the CO2 removal. The modification of the power cycle and integration of absorption stages makes CO2 removal equipment much more compact and allows the use Of CO2 absorbents with lower heat demand for the regeneration. The partial pressure of CO2 is above atmospheric pressure and removal efficiencies above 95% can be obtained with potassium carbonate absorption (the Benfield process). The treated flue gas is then reheated and re-humidified before the expansion in the gas turbine.

A Norwegian consortium has developed the concept and feasibility studies have been performed for 100 MW and 400 MW power plants based on natural gas in Norway. The produced carbon dioxide is intended for storage in the Norwegian oil and gas fields in order to enhance the oil recovery. The suggested localizations of the power plants have been chosen accordingly. The design study is based on the same gas turbine and steam cycle as used in the commercial Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) cycle. PFBC plants are presently fired with coal but the fluid bed combustor for coal will be replaced by a gas combustor if natural gas is used. A key advantage is that the process can be built solely from commercially available components.

This report is an assessment of the features, capabilities, advantages and future possibilities of the suggested power cycle with integrated CO2 removal. A power plant for 100 MW power output and based on natural gas is considered suitable as a first demonstration plant to be built in Hammerfest, Norway. A permit application has been turned in. For such a demonstration plant the process simulations have indicated that an efficiency of about 40% can be obtained, including the penalties from CO2 capture and compression. Further improvements, e.g. supercritical steam cycle or more advanced gas turbine increases the efficiency and for a 400 MW power cycle a net efficiency of about 44-48% has been simulated (including CO2 capture and compression). The cycle may also be suitable for CO2 removal from coal-fired plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. 703-710 p.
Keyword [en]
CO2 capture; CO2 removal; CO2 storage; enhanced oil recovery; power plant; demonstration plant; Norway
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10976ISI: 000232156000087OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10976DiVA: diva2:233597
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The topic of this thesis is carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS), which is a technology that is currently being promoted by industries, scientists and governments, among others, in order to mitigate climate change despite a continued use of fossil fuels. Because of the complex nature of CCS and the risks it entails, it is controversial. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how the technology may be further developed in a responsible manner. In the first part of the thesis different methods for capturing CO2 from industrial processes as well as power plants are analysed. The aim is to identify early opportunities for CO2 capture, which is considered important because of the urgency of the climate change problem. Three potential early opportunities are studied: i) capturing CO2 from calcining processes such as cement industries by using the oxyfuel process, ii) capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas, and iii) capturing CO2 from hybrid combined cycles. Each opportunity has properties that may make them competitive in comparison to the more common alternatives if CCS is realised. However, there are also drawbacks. For example, while capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas enables the use of more compact capture plant designs as well as less expensive and less toxic absorbents, the concept is neither suitable for retrofitting nor has it been promoted by the large and influential corporations. The second part of the thesis has a broader scope than the first and is multidisciplinary in its nature with inspiration from the research field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The approach is to critically analyse stakeholder percep-tions regarding CCS, with a specific focus on the CCS experts. The thesis sheds new light on the complexity and scientific uncertainty of CCS as well as on the optimism among many of its proponents. Because of the uncertain development when it comes to climate change, fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, the conclusion is that CCS has to be further developed and demonstrated. A responsible strategy for a future development of CCS would benefit from: i) a search for win-win strategies, ii) increasing use of appropriate analytical tools such as life-cycle analysis, iii) a consideration of fossil fuel scarcity and increasing price volatility, iv) funding of unbiased research and v) increasing simultaneous investments in long-term solutions such as renewable energy alternatives and efficiency improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. viii, 68 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:50
Keyword
Acceptance, cement, CCS, CO2 capture and storage, early opportunities, enhanced oil recovery, expert opinions, hybrid power cycles, optimism, oxyfuel combustion, pressurised fluidised bed combustion, pilot plant, potassium carbonate, risk, Sargas, scenario studies, scientific uncertainty, stakeholder perceptions
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10985 (URN)978-91-7415-413-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved

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