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Attitudes regarding CO2 capture and storage from a Swedish perspective
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration, 2005, 1-16 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study examines the attitudes of Swedish politicians, scientists, NGOs and industry regarding CO2capture and storage (CCS), i.e. actors who possess knowledge about CCS today and will influence thepublic opinion of tomorrow. The study is unique since the phenomenological approach is seldom seenin this specific context. The empirical data is gathered through interviews and is structured andanalyzed in respect to expressed basic assumptions, systems view and a theoretical frameworkstemming from history of technology. From data, different ideal types are constructed - the CCSopponent, the CCS pragmatic and the CCS supporter. Results show a lot of skepticism and evenopposition to the technology among NGOs and politicians, while industry and scientists generally areproponents. The large group of pragmatics is especially interesting since it is presumed to take a standin the foreseeable future.Over time the energy politics in Sweden has been subject to intense controversies. Betweenthe 1960s and 1980s hydropower and nuclear power were heavily debated. With arguments stemmingfrom environmental protection the public opinion, represented by a wide array of strongorganizations, restricted the expansion of those power sources far below the originally plannedcapacity. Now this new technology, CCS, is about to enter the Swedish debate. It is a controversialtechnology with similar characteristics compared to its precedents regarding e.g. large-scale, risk, andlong-term storage, i.e. characteristics that led to the referendum deciding a nuclear power phase out.Unless a careful approach to implementing the technology, could CCS also be phased outprematurely? Will history repeat itself?The results should be seen from a Swedish point of view since Sweden has vast bio-fuel andhydropower resources, which together with an extensive amount of nuclear power makes CO2emissions per capita and GDP low, and the opposition against fossil fuels high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. 1-16 p.
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10979OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10979DiVA: diva2:233604
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The topic of this thesis is carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS), which is a technology that is currently being promoted by industries, scientists and governments, among others, in order to mitigate climate change despite a continued use of fossil fuels. Because of the complex nature of CCS and the risks it entails, it is controversial. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how the technology may be further developed in a responsible manner. In the first part of the thesis different methods for capturing CO2 from industrial processes as well as power plants are analysed. The aim is to identify early opportunities for CO2 capture, which is considered important because of the urgency of the climate change problem. Three potential early opportunities are studied: i) capturing CO2 from calcining processes such as cement industries by using the oxyfuel process, ii) capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas, and iii) capturing CO2 from hybrid combined cycles. Each opportunity has properties that may make them competitive in comparison to the more common alternatives if CCS is realised. However, there are also drawbacks. For example, while capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas enables the use of more compact capture plant designs as well as less expensive and less toxic absorbents, the concept is neither suitable for retrofitting nor has it been promoted by the large and influential corporations. The second part of the thesis has a broader scope than the first and is multidisciplinary in its nature with inspiration from the research field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The approach is to critically analyse stakeholder percep-tions regarding CCS, with a specific focus on the CCS experts. The thesis sheds new light on the complexity and scientific uncertainty of CCS as well as on the optimism among many of its proponents. Because of the uncertain development when it comes to climate change, fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, the conclusion is that CCS has to be further developed and demonstrated. A responsible strategy for a future development of CCS would benefit from: i) a search for win-win strategies, ii) increasing use of appropriate analytical tools such as life-cycle analysis, iii) a consideration of fossil fuel scarcity and increasing price volatility, iv) funding of unbiased research and v) increasing simultaneous investments in long-term solutions such as renewable energy alternatives and efficiency improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. viii, 68 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:50
Keyword
Acceptance, cement, CCS, CO2 capture and storage, early opportunities, enhanced oil recovery, expert opinions, hybrid power cycles, optimism, oxyfuel combustion, pressurised fluidised bed combustion, pilot plant, potassium carbonate, risk, Sargas, scenario studies, scientific uncertainty, stakeholder perceptions
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10985 (URN)978-91-7415-413-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved

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