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Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. (Energiprocesser)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The topic of this thesis is carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS), which is a technology that is currently being promoted by industries, scientists and governments, among others, in order to mitigate climate change despite a continued use of fossil fuels. Because of the complex nature of CCS and the risks it entails, it is controversial. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how the technology may be further developed in a responsible manner. In the first part of the thesis different methods for capturing CO2 from industrial processes as well as power plants are analysed. The aim is to identify early opportunities for CO2 capture, which is considered important because of the urgency of the climate change problem. Three potential early opportunities are studied: i) capturing CO2 from calcining processes such as cement industries by using the oxyfuel process, ii) capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas, and iii) capturing CO2 from hybrid combined cycles. Each opportunity has properties that may make them competitive in comparison to the more common alternatives if CCS is realised. However, there are also drawbacks. For example, while capturing CO2 from pressurised flue gas enables the use of more compact capture plant designs as well as less expensive and less toxic absorbents, the concept is neither suitable for retrofitting nor has it been promoted by the large and influential corporations. The second part of the thesis has a broader scope than the first and is multidisciplinary in its nature with inspiration from the research field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The approach is to critically analyse stakeholder percep-tions regarding CCS, with a specific focus on the CCS experts. The thesis sheds new light on the complexity and scientific uncertainty of CCS as well as on the optimism among many of its proponents. Because of the uncertain development when it comes to climate change, fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, the conclusion is that CCS has to be further developed and demonstrated. A responsible strategy for a future development of CCS would benefit from: i) a search for win-win strategies, ii) increasing use of appropriate analytical tools such as life-cycle analysis, iii) a consideration of fossil fuel scarcity and increasing price volatility, iv) funding of unbiased research and v) increasing simultaneous investments in long-term solutions such as renewable energy alternatives and efficiency improvements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , viii, 68 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:50
Keyword [en]
Acceptance, cement, CCS, CO2 capture and storage, early opportunities, enhanced oil recovery, expert opinions, hybrid power cycles, optimism, oxyfuel combustion, pressurised fluidised bed combustion, pilot plant, potassium carbonate, risk, Sargas, scenario studies, scientific uncertainty, stakeholder perceptions
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10985ISBN: 978-91-7415-413-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-10985DiVA: diva2:233621
Public defence
2009-09-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Oxygen efficiency with regard to carbon capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen efficiency with regard to carbon capture
2006 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 15, 3220-3226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon capture is often discussed in the literature with the sole focus on power processes, despite the fact that carbon dioxide emissions from other sources are just as relevant for the impact on the atmosphere. Furthermore, some carbon capture methods are relatively inefficient when applied to power production processes. Carbon capture should preferably be performed where the cost is as low as possible, i.e. not necessarily from power production processes. As an example, carbon capture using combustion with pure oxygen is far more energy efficient if it is used together with lime kilns or cement kilns than together with power production processes. A new concept termed "oxygen efficiency" is introduced in this paper. It describes the amount of carbon dioxide that can potentially be captured per unit of oxygen. As such, the oxygen efficiency quantifies the value of a certain unit of oxygen for carbon capture reasons. The base concept is that the energy penalty for the production of one part of oxygen is the same no matter where it is produced; hence, if this unit of oxygen can be used to capture more carbon dioxide, it is more efficient. Typically, the oxygen efficiency would be five times greater for carbon capture when utilising pure oxygen together with cement kilns rather than together with methane-fired power plants. Furthermore, the concept of oxygen efficiency illustrates the importance of considering how carbon capture methods can be utilised in the most efficient way, in addition to evaluating which carbon capture method is the most suitable for a particular technology.

Keyword
oxygen combustion, carbon capture, cement kiln, lime kiln
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10974 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2006.03.002 (DOI)000241246600013 ()2-s2.0-33748298913 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Feasibility study of CO2 removal from pressurized flue gas in a fully fired combined cycle: the Sargas project
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility study of CO2 removal from pressurized flue gas in a fully fired combined cycle: the Sargas project
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS, 2005, 703-710 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article a novel concept for CO2 removal from power plants is discussed from a systems perspective. The main advantage of the process is that the investment cost and the power penalty for CO2 removal can be substantially reduced compared to conventional combined cycles. The proposed technical solution comprises fully fired combined cycle, which minimizes the amount of flue gas. Furthermore, the CO2 absorption is performed at pressurized conditions prior to the expansion, which further enhances the CO2 removal. The modification of the power cycle and integration of absorption stages makes CO2 removal equipment much more compact and allows the use Of CO2 absorbents with lower heat demand for the regeneration. The partial pressure of CO2 is above atmospheric pressure and removal efficiencies above 95% can be obtained with potassium carbonate absorption (the Benfield process). The treated flue gas is then reheated and re-humidified before the expansion in the gas turbine.

A Norwegian consortium has developed the concept and feasibility studies have been performed for 100 MW and 400 MW power plants based on natural gas in Norway. The produced carbon dioxide is intended for storage in the Norwegian oil and gas fields in order to enhance the oil recovery. The suggested localizations of the power plants have been chosen accordingly. The design study is based on the same gas turbine and steam cycle as used in the commercial Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) cycle. PFBC plants are presently fired with coal but the fluid bed combustor for coal will be replaced by a gas combustor if natural gas is used. A key advantage is that the process can be built solely from commercially available components.

This report is an assessment of the features, capabilities, advantages and future possibilities of the suggested power cycle with integrated CO2 removal. A power plant for 100 MW power output and based on natural gas is considered suitable as a first demonstration plant to be built in Hammerfest, Norway. A permit application has been turned in. For such a demonstration plant the process simulations have indicated that an efficiency of about 40% can be obtained, including the penalties from CO2 capture and compression. Further improvements, e.g. supercritical steam cycle or more advanced gas turbine increases the efficiency and for a 400 MW power cycle a net efficiency of about 44-48% has been simulated (including CO2 capture and compression). The cycle may also be suitable for CO2 removal from coal-fired plants.

Keyword
CO2 capture; CO2 removal; CO2 storage; enhanced oil recovery; power plant; demonstration plant; Norway
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10976 (URN)000232156000087 ()
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. CO2 capture pilot test at a pressurized coal fired CHP plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 capture pilot test at a pressurized coal fired CHP plant
2009 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 1, no 1, 1403-1410 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CO2 capture from pressurized flue gas using a variation of the hot potassium carbonate process has been demonstrated at a pilot plant with authentic flue gas from the Vartan combined heat and power plant in Stockholm. The plant has served as a proof of concept installation, and has confirmed that: i) the pre-treatment of the flue gas is adequate for protecting the absorbent from degradation, ii) the CO2 capture efficiency is high (> 98 %), iii) no harmful components are fed to the gas turbine, and iv) absorbent degradation is low (0.85 mole percent/month).

Keyword
CO2 capture; demonstration; PFBC; pilot plant; potassium carbonate; SARGAS
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10977 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2009.01.184 (DOI)000276074401062 ()2-s2.0-79955404436 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
4. The modelling of a hybrid combined cycle with pressurised fluidised bed combustion and CO2 capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The modelling of a hybrid combined cycle with pressurised fluidised bed combustion and CO2 capture
2009 (English)In: International journal of greenhouse gas control, ISSN 1750-5836, Vol. 3, no 3, 255-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the possibility of capturing CO2 from flue gas under pressurised conditions, which could prove to be beneficial in comparison to working under atmospheric conditions. Simulations of two hybrid combined cycles with pressurised fluidised bed combustion and CO2 capture are presented. CO2 is captured from pressurised flue gas by means of chemical absorption after the boiler but before expansion. The results show a CO2 capture penalty of approximately 8 percentage points (including 90% CO2 capture rate and compression to 110 bar), which makes the efficiency for the best performing cycle 43.9%. It is 5.2 percentage points higher than the most probable alternative, i.e. using a natural gas fired combined cycle and a pulverised coal fired condensing plant separately with the same fuel split ratio. The largest part of the penalty is associated with the lower mass flow of flue gas after CO2 capture, which leads to a decrease in work output in the expander and potential for feed water heating. The penalty caused by the regeneration of absorbent is quite low, since the high pressure permits the use of potassium carbonate, which requires less regeneration heat than for example the more commonly proposed monoethanolamine. Although the efficiencies of the cycles look promising it will be important to perform a cost estimate to be able to make a fair comparison with other systems. Such a cost estimate has not been done in this study. A significant drawback of these hybrid cycles in that respect is the complex nature of the systems that will have a negative effect on the economy.

Keyword
Carbon dioxide capture; Hybrid power cycles; PFBC
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10978 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.09.002 (DOI)000266179200002 ()2-s2.0-64449085290 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-08-20Bibliographically approved
5. Attitudes regarding CO2 capture and storage from a Swedish perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attitudes regarding CO2 capture and storage from a Swedish perspective
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration, 2005, 1-16 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study examines the attitudes of Swedish politicians, scientists, NGOs and industry regarding CO2capture and storage (CCS), i.e. actors who possess knowledge about CCS today and will influence thepublic opinion of tomorrow. The study is unique since the phenomenological approach is seldom seenin this specific context. The empirical data is gathered through interviews and is structured andanalyzed in respect to expressed basic assumptions, systems view and a theoretical frameworkstemming from history of technology. From data, different ideal types are constructed - the CCSopponent, the CCS pragmatic and the CCS supporter. Results show a lot of skepticism and evenopposition to the technology among NGOs and politicians, while industry and scientists generally areproponents. The large group of pragmatics is especially interesting since it is presumed to take a standin the foreseeable future.Over time the energy politics in Sweden has been subject to intense controversies. Betweenthe 1960s and 1980s hydropower and nuclear power were heavily debated. With arguments stemmingfrom environmental protection the public opinion, represented by a wide array of strongorganizations, restricted the expansion of those power sources far below the originally plannedcapacity. Now this new technology, CCS, is about to enter the Swedish debate. It is a controversialtechnology with similar characteristics compared to its precedents regarding e.g. large-scale, risk, andlong-term storage, i.e. characteristics that led to the referendum deciding a nuclear power phase out.Unless a careful approach to implementing the technology, could CCS also be phased outprematurely? Will history repeat itself?The results should be seen from a Swedish point of view since Sweden has vast bio-fuel andhydropower resources, which together with an extensive amount of nuclear power makes CO2emissions per capita and GDP low, and the opposition against fossil fuels high.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10979 (URN)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved
6. Expert opinions on carbon dioxide capture and storage: a framing of uncertainties and possibilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expert opinions on carbon dioxide capture and storage: a framing of uncertainties and possibilities
2009 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 6, 2273-2282 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are many uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the development of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS)-e.g., when it comes to costs, life-cycle effects, storage capacity and permanence. In spite of these uncertainties and barriers, the CCS research community is generally very optimistic regarding CCS' development. The discrepancy between the uncertainties and the optimism is the point of departure in this study, which is based on interviews with 24 CCS experts. The aim is to analyse experts' framings of CCS with focus on two key aspects: (i) the function and potential of CCS and (ii) uncertainties. The optimism among the CCS experts is tentatively explained. The interpretative flexibility of CCS is claimed to be an essential explanation for the optimism. CCS is promoted from a wide variety of perspectives, e.g., solidarity and peace, bridge to a sustainable energy system, sustaining the modern lifestyle and compatibility with the fossil fuel lock-in. Awareness of the uncertainties and potential over-optimism is warranted within policy and decision making as they often rely on scientific forecasts and experts' judgements.

Keyword
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS); Expert opinions; Uncertainty
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10980 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2009.02.018 (DOI)000266233300031 ()2-s2.0-64749097036 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
7. Energy policy on shaky ground?: A study of CCS-scenarios
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy policy on shaky ground?: A study of CCS-scenarios
2009 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, no 1, 4673-4680 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scenarios play an important role for the societal acceptance of CCS. This paper looks into influential reports containing CCS scenarios and analyses results, key assumptions and drivers for CCS' deployment. Significant uncertainties regarding CCS' development were in several cases excluded or marginalized. Despite these shortcomings, scenarios support a massive deployment of CCS and reflect an undivided optimism. If CCS would fail to meet the high expectations a backlash could follow. Indications were found that new scenarios including uncertainties are needed to balance this over-optimism. So-called unpleasant scenarios are often valuable in helping decision makers develop flexible strategies and policies.

Keyword
CCS; economic modelling; scenario studies; policy making; uncertainties
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10981 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.290 (DOI)000276074404088 ()2-s2.0-67650112115 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
8. CCS deployment obstacles: Actor perceptions and risk mitigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CCS deployment obstacles: Actor perceptions and risk mitigation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10982 (URN)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2010-07-27Bibliographically approved

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