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Adhesion Dynamics for Cellulose Nano-Composites
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. (Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap, Surface and Corrosion Science)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. (Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fibre and Polymer Technology)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. (Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fibre and Polymer Technology)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9372-0829
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. (Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fibre and Polymer Technology)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8348-2273
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2009 (English)In: ACS applied Materials & Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8252, 2098-2103 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) as a matrix polymer for cellulose nano-composites has been investigated at the macromolecular contact level using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in colloidal probe configuration.  Model cellulose micro-spheres grafted with PCL were prepared via ring-opening polymerization (ROP).  Force measurements between the functionalized particles revealed the adhesion to be highly dependent on contact time due to a diffusion controlled mechanism.  Moreover, an increase of the temperature to 60 °C (close to Tm for the PCL-graft) greatly enhanced the adhesion at the polymer-polymer interface demonstrating the importance of entanglements in the annealing of composite materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. 2098-2103 p.
Keyword [en]
atomic force microscopy, cellulose, surface forces, adhesion, colloidal probe, nano-composites, ring-opening polymerization, surface grafting, poly(ε-caprolactone)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11001DOI: 10.1021/am900381tISI: 000271105000002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79955835800OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11001DiVA: diva2:233867
Note
QC 20100730Available from: 2009-09-03 Created: 2009-09-03 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interfacial Properties of Biomacromolecular Model Systems: Surface Forces and Nanotribology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfacial Properties of Biomacromolecular Model Systems: Surface Forces and Nanotribology
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The nanotribology, adhesion and related interfacial properties of biomacromolecular systems have been studied.  The aim was to elucidate the role of physisorbed and chemically grafted bio-polymers implicated as mediators for cellulose based processing and material design.  To that end, model surfaces were prepared and characterized by the versatile techniques quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in colloidal probe mode.  A prerequisite for the latter in conducting quantifiable force and friction measurements lies in obtaining accurate values for the cantilever spring constants.  An investigation of various recently proposed calibration methods shows that they return essentially the same result, but that the route of Sader et al. is the least strenuous and indeed most reliable.  A novel approach for determining the required frictional detector sensitivity is proposed.

Cellulose model surfaces with varying morphology were evaluated.  For a given surface roughness the adsorption of xyloglucan, a nonionic polysaccharide, leads to a consistent decrease in the friction coefficients for all cellulose substrates, demonstrating that the effects on friction arising from either roughness or chemistry can be decoupled.  Moreover, xyloglucan grafts on gold show biological enzymatic accessibility, and their native affinity towards cellulose is retained, even in an extended brush conformation.

Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide is also found to mediate lubrication and adhesion of cellulose in a solvent dependent manner, though the mechanisms are unlike those of xyloglucan.  At low pH the most efficient lubrication is achieved due to highly charged chitosan species extending out in the aqueous media, forming a highly hydrated cushion.  Conversely, at high pH the deswelling of the layer results in higher friction.  The same trend is observed between synthetic dual-responsive polyionic grafts on gold where the polymer charge is decisive for the friction properties. Above the lower critical solution temperature where the grafts are fully collapsed and display an attractive force, the friction is slightly reduced due to a nanoscopic flattening at the interface.

Finally, polymer grafts as matrix compatibilizers for bio-degradable cellulose based nano-composite applications were evaluated.  Adhesion is greatly promoted by chain entanglements.  The effect displays a dynamic diffusion based dependence of which the rate is significantly enhanced at a higher temperature close to the melting point of the polymeric layer.  No such adhesion benefit was obtained between ungrafted cellulose and the matrix material.

Abstract [sv]

Nanotribologin, adhesionen samt relaterade gränsskikts egenskaper av biomakromolekylära system har studerats.  Målet var att belysa inverkan av adsorberade samt kemiskt ympade bio-polymerer implicerade som medlare för cellulosa baserad förädling och material design.  För detta ändamål var modell ytor beredda och karakteriserade med de mångsidiga teknikerna kvarts kristall mikro våg med dissipation (QCM-D) och atom krafts mikroskopi (AFM) i kolloidal prob konfiguration.  En förutsättning för den senare i att utföra kvantifierbara kraft och friktionsmätningar ligger i att bestämma noggranna värden för kantilever-fjäderkonstanterna.  En undersökning av olika nyligen föreslagna kalibrerings metoder visar att de ger i huvudsak samma resultat, men att den av Sader et al. är minst krävande och sannerligen den mest tillförlitliga. Ett nytt tillvägagångsstätt för att bestämma den obligatoriska friktions detektor-känsligheten föreslås.

Cellulosa modell ytor med varierande morfologi utvärderades.   För en given ytråhet leder adsorption av xyloglukan, en icke-jonisk polysackarid, till en konsekvent reduktion av friktions-koefficienterna för alla substraten, vilket demonstrerar att effekten på friktion av antingen ytråhet eller kemi kan separeras.  Därtill visar sig xyloglukan ympningar på guld vara biologiskt enzymatiskt tillgängligt, och deras naturliga affinitet för cellulosa är bevarad, även i en utdragen borst-konformation.

Kitosan, en katjonisk polysackarid visar sig också förmedla smörjning och adhesion av cellulosa på ett lösnings beroende sätt, men mekanismerna är olika de för xyloglukan.  Vid lågt pH uppnås den mest effektiva smörjningen p. g. a. de högt laddade kitosankedjorna som sträcker ut sig i vatten lösningen och formar en högt hydratiserad dyna.  Omvänt, vid högt pH resulterar vattenhaltsminskningen av lagret i en högre friktion.  Samma tendens iakttas mellan syntetiskt dubbel-responsiva polyjoniska ympningar på guld där polymerladdningen är avgörande för friktionsegenskaperna.  Ovanför den lägre kritiska lösningstemperaturen där ympningen är helt kollapsad och uppvisar en attraktiv kraft är friktionen något reducerad        p. g. a. nanoskopisk utjämning vid gränsskiktet.

Slutligen, har polymerympningar som matris-kompatibiliterare för bio-nedbrytbara cellulosa baserade nano-komposit applikationer utvärderats.  Adhesionen är mycket gynnad av kedjeintrasslingar.  Effekten påvisar ett dynamiskt diffusionsbaserat beroende, av vilken takten är signifikant förhöjd vid en högre temperatur nära smältpunkten för polymerlagret.  Ingen sådan adhesionsfördel uppnåddes mellan den rena cellulosan och matrismaterialet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. vii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:36
Keyword
afm, surface force, friction, composite material, model surface, quartz crystal microbalance, dissipation, cellulose, xyloglucan, chitosan, colloidal probe, nanotribology, biomimetic, enzymatic, polysaccharide, graft, fiber, thiol, spring constant, calibration, lubrication, polyion, responsive.
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11002 (URN)978-91-7415-394-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-25, FD5, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100804Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-03 Last updated: 2010-08-04Bibliographically approved
2. Ring-opening polymerization from cellulose for biocomposite applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ring-opening polymerization from cellulose for biocomposite applications
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is an emerging interest in the development of sustainable materials with high performance. Cellulose is promising in this regard as it is a renewablere source with high specific properties, which can be utilized as strong reinforcements in novel biocomposites. However, to fully exploit the potential ofcellulose, its inherent hydrophilic character has to be modified in order toimprove the compatibility and interfacial adhesion with the more hydrophobicpolymer matrices commonly used in composites.In this study, the grafting of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactide)(PLLA) from cellulose surfaces, via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone and L-lactide, was investigated. Both macroscopic and nano-sizedcellulose were explored, such as filter paper, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC),MFC-films, and regenerated cellulose spheres. It was found that thehydrophobicity of the cellulose surfaces increased with longer graft lengths, andthat polymer grafting rendered a smoother surface morphology.To improve the grafting efficiency in the ROP from filter paper, both covalent(bis(methylol)propionic acid, bis-MPA) and physical pretreatment (xyloglucanbisMPA)were explored. The highest grafting efficiency was obtained with ROPfrom the bis-MPA modified filter papers, which significantly increased amountof polymer on the surface, i.e. the thickness of the grafted polymer layer.MFC was grafted with PCL to different molecular weights. The dispersability innon-polar solvent was obviously improved for the PCL grafted MFC, incomparison to neat MFC, and the stability of the MFC suspensions was better maintained with longer grafts. PCL based biocomposites were prepared from neat MFC and PCL grafted MFCwith different graft lengths. The polymer grafting improved the mechanical properties of the composites, and the best reinforcing effect was obtained when PCL grafted MFC with the longest grafts were used as reinforcement.A bilayer laminate consisting of PCL and MFC-films grafted with different PCL graft lengths displayed a gradual increase in the interfacial adhesion with increasing graft length.The effect of grafting on the adhesion was also investigated via colloidal probeatomic force microscopy at different temperatures and time in contact. A significant improvement in the adhesion was observed after polymer grafting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. 68 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:24
Keyword
cellulose, ring-opening polymerization, polycaprolactone, grafting from
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10455 (URN)978-91-7415-338-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-06-05, F3, KTH, Lindstedsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100730Available from: 2009-05-18 Created: 2009-05-15 Last updated: 2010-07-30Bibliographically approved

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