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Simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0696-7506
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4461-0209
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2489-0688
2009 (English)In: SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-3040, USA: SAE , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and the pads are worn in disc brakes. This wear process generates particles which may become airborne. In passenger car field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment. It may therefore be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated. This paper discusses the possibility of predicting the number distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad to rotor contact in disc brakes by using general purpose finite element software. A simulation methodology is proposed where the particle coefficient is established by testing at material level. This coefficient is then used in numerical wear simulation at component level. The simulated number distribution is compared to experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number and distribution of airborne particles generated from the pad to rotor contact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: SAE , 2009.
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11043DOI: 10.4271/2009-01-3040Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84877467840OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11043DiVA: diva2:234828
Conference
SAE 2009 Brake Colloquium and Exhibition, BRAKE 2009; Tampa, FL; United States; 11 October 2009 through 11 October 2009
Note

QC 20150708

Available from: 2009-09-10 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2015-07-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and the pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes. However, in field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment, so it may be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated.

This thesis deals with a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes and three experimental methods for testing disc brake materials with focus on airborne wear particles. The four appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure and predict the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles that originate from the pad to rotor contact. The objective is to develop a simulation methodology that predicts the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles from disc brakes.

Paper A describes how a modified pin-on-disc machine was used to study airborne wear particles originating from different disc brake materials. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure and rank the number concentration and size distribution of the airborne wear particles generated.

Paper B describes a disc brake assembly test stand for measurements of airborne wear particles from disc brakes. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure the number concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The results also indicate a promising ability to rank different pad/rotor material combinations with respect to the number concentration of airborne wear particles.

Paper C compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in a disc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is found.

Paper D presents a simulation methodology for predicting the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles using finite element analysis (FEA). The simulated number distribution is compared with experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number concentration and size distribution of airborne particles generated in the pad-to-rotor contact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. 17 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:15
Keyword
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Particle coefficient, Friction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11044 (URN)978-91-7415-391-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
B242, Brinellvägen 83, Maskin (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-18 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
2. A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the disc and pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed,some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found anassociation between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere,so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by discbrakes.

This thesis deals with experimental and computational methods focusing on airborne wearparticles from disc brakes. The eight appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure andnumerically determine the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles thatoriginate from the pad-to-disc contact. The objective is to increase the scientific knowledge ofairborne wear particles generated from disc brakes.

Papers A, B and C describe tests of disc brake materials conducted in a modified pin-on-discmachine. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure and rank disc brakematerials with respect to the concentration of airborne particles generated. Ultrafine (nanosized),fine and coarse airborne wear particles that contain metals such as iron, copper and tin werefound.

Papers D and E describe a novel disc brake assembly test stand and tests of disc brake materialsconducted in it. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure the concentrationand size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The resultsalso indicate an ability to rank different pad/disc combinations with respect to the concentrationof airborne wear particles. Furthermore, the results suggest that this test stand can be used tostudy rust layer removal from the disc and that airborne particles are generated even at low brakepressures, such as used to remove dirt from the disc.

Paper F compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in adisc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between thethree different test methods is found.

Paper G presents and discusses a simulation methodology that numerically determines theconcentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad-to-disccontact in disc brakes by using general-purpose finite element software.

Paper H discusses a cellular automaton model that describes the microscopic contact situationbetween the pad and disc in disc brakes. This model is used to numerically determine the amountof wear that leaves the contact. The results correlate qualitatively with experimental observationsfound in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 20 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:04
Keyword
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Nanoparticles, Cellular automaton
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31152 (URN)978-91-7415-871-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-27, F3 (Flodissalen), Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110317Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved

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Wahlström, JensSöderberg, AndersOlofsson, Ulf

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