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Towards a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0696-7506
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and the pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes. However, in field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment, so it may be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated.

This thesis deals with a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes and three experimental methods for testing disc brake materials with focus on airborne wear particles. The four appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure and predict the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles that originate from the pad to rotor contact. The objective is to develop a simulation methodology that predicts the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles from disc brakes.

Paper A describes how a modified pin-on-disc machine was used to study airborne wear particles originating from different disc brake materials. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure and rank the number concentration and size distribution of the airborne wear particles generated.

Paper B describes a disc brake assembly test stand for measurements of airborne wear particles from disc brakes. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure the number concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The results also indicate a promising ability to rank different pad/rotor material combinations with respect to the number concentration of airborne wear particles.

Paper C compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in a disc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is found.

Paper D presents a simulation methodology for predicting the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles using finite element analysis (FEA). The simulated number distribution is compared with experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number concentration and size distribution of airborne particles generated in the pad-to-rotor contact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , 17 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:15
Keyword [en]
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Particle coefficient, Friction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11044ISBN: 978-91-7415-391-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11044DiVA: diva2:234832
Presentation
B242, Brinellvägen 83, Maskin (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-18 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A pin-on-disc simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pin-on-disc simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
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2010 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 268, no 5-6, 763-769 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel test method was used to study the concentration and size distribution of airborne wearparticles from disc brake materials. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle countinginstruments was used as test equipment. Material from four different non-asbestos organic(NAO) pads and four different low metallic (LM) pads were tested against material from greycast iron rotors. The results indicate that the low metallic pads cause more wear to the rotormaterial than the NAO pads, resulting in higher concentrations of airborne wear particles.Although there are differences in the measured particle concentrations, similar size distributionswere obtained. Independent of pad material, the characteristic particle number distributions ofairborne brake wear particles have maxima around 100, 280, 350, and 550 nm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
wear, airborne particles, disc brake, pin-on-disc
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11042 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2009.11.014 (DOI)000275158000017 ()2-s2.0-74649084522 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100824 Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20100824)

Available from: 2009-09-10 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. A disc brake test stand for measurement of airborne wear particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A disc brake test stand for measurement of airborne wear particles
2009 (English)In: Lubrication Science, ISSN 0954-0075, Vol. 21, no 6, 241-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During braking, there is wear on both the rotor and the pads. This process generates particles that may becomeairborne. In field tests, it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment.Therefore, a laboratory test stand has been designed which allows control of the cleanliness of the surroundingair. The test stand consists of a front right brake assembly mounted in a sealed chamber. A braking load is appliedby a pneumatic system and the rotor, which has been pre-conditioned with a rust layer to simulate a car standingparked overnight in a wet environment, is driven by an electric motor. The number and size of airborne wearparticles are then measured. This experimental set-up has been verified by an initial test series performed at lowbraking loads. The results suggest that this test stand can be used to study rust layer removal from the rotor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009
Keyword
wear, airborne particles, disc brake, test stand, rust layer
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11040 (URN)10.1002/ls.87 (DOI)000268086900003 ()2-s2.0-67650841316 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100818

Available from: 2009-09-10 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
3. Airborne wear particles from passenger car disc brakes: a comparison of measurements from field tests, a disc brake assembly test stand, and a pin-on-disc machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Airborne wear particles from passenger car disc brakes: a comparison of measurements from field tests, a disc brake assembly test stand, and a pin-on-disc machine
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, no J2, 179-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels.Unlike drumbrakes,disc brakes are not sealed off from the ambient air. During braking, both the rotor and the padswear, and this wear process generates particles that may become airborne. In field tests it isdifficult to distinguish these particles from others in the environment. It is thus preferable toconduct tests using laboratory test stands where the cleanness of the surrounding air can becontrolled.However, the validity of results fromthese test stands should be verifiedbycomparisonwith field tests. This article presents a comparison of the number and volume distributions ofairborne wear particles as measured online in field tests, in a disc brake assembly test stand,and in a pin-on-disc machine. In all cases, grey cast iron rotors and low metallic pads weretested. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is shown. The numberandvolume-weighted mean particle diameter for all test methods is about 0.4 and 2–3μm,respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
England: Professional Engineering Publishing, 2010
Keyword
wear, airborne particles, disc brake, test stand, field test
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11041 (URN)10.1243/13506501JET633 (DOI)000275650100006 ()2-s2.0-77249128420 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100827

Available from: 2009-09-10 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
2009 (English)In: SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-3040, USA: SAE , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and the pads are worn in disc brakes. This wear process generates particles which may become airborne. In passenger car field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment. It may therefore be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated. This paper discusses the possibility of predicting the number distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad to rotor contact in disc brakes by using general purpose finite element software. A simulation methodology is proposed where the particle coefficient is established by testing at material level. This coefficient is then used in numerical wear simulation at component level. The simulated number distribution is compared to experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number and distribution of airborne particles generated from the pad to rotor contact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: SAE, 2009
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11043 (URN)10.4271/2009-01-3040 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877467840 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE 2009 Brake Colloquium and Exhibition, BRAKE 2009; Tampa, FL; United States; 11 October 2009 through 11 October 2009
Note

QC 20150708

Available from: 2009-09-10 Created: 2009-09-10 Last updated: 2015-07-08Bibliographically approved

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