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Complex Oxide Photonic Crystals
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. (Condensed Matter Physics)
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microphotonics has been offering a body of ideas to prospective applicationsin optics. Among those, the concept of photonic integrated circuits (PIC’s) has recently spurred a substantial excitement into the scientific community. Relisation of the PIC’s becomes feasible as the size shrinkage of the optical elements is accomplished. The elements based on photonic crystals (PCs) represent promising candidacy for manufacture of PIC’s. This thesis is devoted to tailoring of optical properties and advanced modelling of two types of photonic crystals: (Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12)m and (TiO2/Er2O3)m potentially applicable in the role optical isolators and optical amplifiers, respectively. Deposition conditions of titanium dioxide were first investigated to maximise refractive index and minimise absorption as well as surface roughness of titania films. It was done employing three routines: deposition at elevated substrate temperatures, regular annealing in thermodynamically equilibrium conditions and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). RTA at 500 oC was shown to provide the best optical performance giving a refractive index of 2.53, an absorption coefficient of 404 cm−1 and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 0.6 nm. Advanced modelling of transmittance and Faraday rotation for the PCs (Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12)5 and (TiO2/Er2O3)6 was done using the 4 × 4 matrix formalism of Višňovský. The simulations for the constituent materials in the forms of single films were performed using the Swanepoel and Višňovský formulae. This enabled generation of the dispersion relations for diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the permittivity tensors relating to the materials. These dispersion relations were utilised to produce dispersion relations for complex refractive indices of the materials. Integration of the complex refractive indices into the 4 × 4 matrix formalism allowed computation of transmittance and Faraday rotation of the PCs. The simulation results were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental ones proving such a simulation approach is an excellent means of engineering PCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kista Snabbtryck AB , 2009. , x, 52 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2009:6
Keyword [en]
Photonic crystals, magneto-optical effects, refractive index, iron garnet
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11068ISBN: 978-91-7415-382-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11068DiVA: diva2:235343
Presentation
2009-09-21, FMI conference room, 3rd floor, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2010-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Enhanced photoluminescence in [Er2O3/TiO2]m photonic crystals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced photoluminescence in [Er2O3/TiO2]m photonic crystals
2009 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 105, no 11, 113122- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We survey optical properties of [Er2O3/TiO 2]6/Er2O32/[TiO 2/Er2O3]6 photonic crystals (PCs) pulsed laser deposited on to the glass substrates. The dispersion relations of refractive indexes and extinction coefficients of the constituent materials were obtained from the comparison of experimental and simulated transmission spectra of single layer Er2O3 and TiO2 reference films. Based on these data several PCs have been designed and grown to match stop band and cavity mode resonance at wavelengths close to the 523 nm Er 3+-ion Fraunhofer 4S3/2 absorption line. Precise control of chemical composition and uniform multilayer thickness enable achievement of superior optical performance of sintered PCs. Obtained dispersion relations were combined with the 2×2 transfer matrix formalism to compute PC transmittance that appeared to be in a good agreement with the experimental spectra. Pumping PCs with 514 nm light source we observed a strong photoluminescence (PL) at 1535 nm. In PC specially designed for the resonance wavelength λres =514 nm, C-band PL intensity experiences fivefold enhancement compared to a single layer Er2 O3 film of equivalent thickness.

Keyword
Absorption lines, At-wavelength, Cavity mode, Chemical compositions, Constituent materials, Dispersion relations, Equivalent thickness, Experimental spectra, Extinction coefficients, Fraunhofer, Glass substrates, Optical performance, PL intensity, Precise control, Pulsed laser, Reference films, Resonance wavelengths, Simulated transmission spectra, Single layer, Stop-bands, TiO, Transfer matrixes
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11132 (URN)10.1063/1.3143082 (DOI)000267053200022 ()2-s2.0-67649544889 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101008Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Fitting transmission and Faraday rotation spectra of Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12 (m) magneto-optical photonic crystals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fitting transmission and Faraday rotation spectra of Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12 (m) magneto-optical photonic crystals
2009 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 106, no 4, 043901- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A consistent microscopic approach is developed to simulate the transmittance and Faraday rotation in all-garnet heteroepitaxial magneto-optical photonic crystals (MOPCs). To compare the experimental and simulation results, [Bi3Fe5O12/Sm3Ga5O12](m) (BIG/SGG) MOPC designed to operate at a telecommunication wavelength lambda(res)=980 nm was chosen. It was composed of [BIG/SGG](5) and [SGG/BIG](5) distributed Bragg reflectors with a microcavity layer of BIG in between. The dispersion relations of the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the permittivity tensor (epsilon) over cap for BIG in the electric dipole approximation were obtained from the simulation of the transmittance and Faraday rotation for a reference single layer BIG film. Revealed dispersion relations were then combined with the 4 x 4 matrix formalism for magnetic superlattices to compute transmission and Faraday rotation spectra of the MOPC. The results of numerical simulations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones.

Keyword
magnetophotonic crystals, superlattices, garnet, lasers
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18782 (URN)10.1063/1.3195067 (DOI)000270083800059 ()2-s2.0-69749102229 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Pulsed Laser Deposited TiO2Films: Tailoring optical properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulsed Laser Deposited TiO2Films: Tailoring optical properties
2008 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 23, 8697-8701 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

TiO2 amorphous films have been pulsed laser deposited onto glass substrates. Film characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission spectroscopy was performed with the aim of extracting the information on the film crystalline structure, surface roughness and optical properties. Three methods for improving film optical performance have been employed, namely deposition at elevated temperatures, post-annealing in thermodynamically equilibrium conditions and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The best characteristics were achieved in the case of the film subjected to RTA at 500 °C: refractive index n = 2.53, absorption coefficient α = 404 cm- 1 at λ = 550 nm and rms surface roughness as low as 0.6 nm. The results obtained were found to be one of the best published so far.

Keyword
Absorption coefficient, Anatase, Pulsed laser deposition, Rapid thermal annealing, Refractive index, Rutile, Surface roughness
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11137 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2008.05.010 (DOI)000260579800081 ()2-s2.0-50849144335 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100928Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Tailoring optical properties of pulsed laser deposited TiO2 films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring optical properties of pulsed laser deposited TiO2 films
Show others...
2008 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS/13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SURFACE SCIENCE/INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANOSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Johansson LSO; Andersen JN; Gothelid M; Helmersson U; Montelius L; Rubel M; Setina J; Wernersson LE, BRISTOL, ENGLAND: IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2008, no 100, 082035- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper is dedicated to the investigation into optical properties of TiO2 thin films pulsed laser deposited at the temperature as low as 150 degrees C and subjected to the following heat treatment. Properties of obtained nanocrystalline films were compared to polycrystalline TiO2 films grown at elevated temperatures. The highest transmission and the best morphology in polycrystalline films have been obtained at the growth temperature of 300 degrees C. The two methods of post-annealing of amorphous films were employed: annealing at thermodynamically equilibrium conditions and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). RTA at 500 degrees C enables achievement of the best optical performance: smooth surface and high films transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BRISTOL, ENGLAND: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2008
Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588 ; 100
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11133 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/100/8/082035 (DOI)000275655200313 ()
Conference
17th International Vacuum Congress/13th International Conference on Surface Science/Internatinal Conference on Nanoscience and Technology
Note

QC 20101008

Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved

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