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Dynamic Characterization of Semiconductor Lasers and Intensity Modulators
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. (Photonics and Microwave Engineering)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research work presented in this thesis deals with characterization ofdynamics of active photonic devices that are based on semiconductormaterials. The thesis contains an introduction and a collection of publishedarticles in peer reviewed international journals and conferences.The introduction starts with the physical background and a review of thesemiconductor material properties which both affects the design andfabrication of the devices and determine their performance in applicationssuch as wavelength, optical power and attenuation, drive current andvoltage, temperature sensitivity and modulation bandwidth.The next chapter of the introduction is dedicated to various kinds ofsemiconductor lasers. It describes the physical principles, steady stateoperation and the dynamical response. The laser is essentially an opticalcavity consisting of a material with optical gain inbetween two reflectivemirrors. Special attention is given to the spectral shape of the mirrorreflectivity and its effect on the laser dynamics and how these effects canbe distinguished from those of the gain material.In order to improve dynamic performance, it is common that the laser,instead of being directly modulated by varying the drive current, isconnected to a separate modulator. The next chapter is therefore devotedto electroabsorption modulators for high speed intensity modulation andtheir integration to lasers. In order to fully take advantage of the highintrinsic modulation bandwidth of these devices it is important to havea good microwave design to avoid electrical parasitics. A segmented paddesign to achieve this is briefly described.The last part of the introduction covers measurements techniques that wereimplemented to experimentally investigate above devices. A description ofthe measurement methods, including practical hints and methods forevaluation of the measured results are provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , xii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2009:8
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11149OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11149DiVA: diva2:236380
Public defence
2009-09-30, KTH-Electrum, sal/ hall C2, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2010-07-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High-speed direct Modulation of widely tunable MG-Y laser
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed direct Modulation of widely tunable MG-Y laser
2005 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 17, no 6, 1157-1159 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamic performance of the modulated-grating Y-branch laser is presented. In order to reach over 40-nm tuning range, the devices utilize an additive Vernier effect and relative tuning of two reflecting gratings. The device shows high (> 13 dBrn ex-facet) and uniform (< 1.2-dB variation) steady state output power over the tuning range, and sidemode suppression ratio > d40 dB. The laser behavior under small- and large-signal operation conditions is investigated. The laser exhibits a resonance frequency of 7.4-8.8 GHz at 80-mA bias. A 10-Gb/s eye diagram measurement showed, high extinction ratio and signal-to-noise ratio.

Keyword
high-speed modulation; semiconductor laser; tunable laser
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11139 (URN)10.1109/LPT.2005.846489 (DOI)000229850300007 ()2-s2.0-20544439017 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with temperature-tolerant modulation characteristics
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 21, 211109-1-211109-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamic performance of InGaAs/GaAs 1.27 &mu; m single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. In order to reach such a long wavelength, the devices utilize highly strained double-quantum wells and a large detuning between the material gain peak and cavity resonance. It is found that the large detuning improves the temperature stability of both static and modulation characteristics. A resonance frequency of 7.8-9.5 GHz and optical power of 0.30 mW in fiber was maintained throughout the investigated temperature range of 20-90 &DEG; C. The intrinsic response of the device suggests that long-wavelength InGaAs/GaAs VCSELs have the potential to be used as low cost uncooled optical transmitters at 10 Gbit/s. &COPY; 2005 American Institute of Physics. &COPY; 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Keyword
Dispersion (waves); Modulation; Resonance; Semiconducting indium gallium arsenide; Semiconductor quantum wells; Thermodynamic stability; Optical transmitters; Resonance frequency; Surface emitting lasers; Temperature tolerant modulation characteristics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8623 (URN)10.1063/1.1935755 (DOI)000229544200009 ()2-s2.0-20844447649 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
3. 1.3 um InGaAs VCSELs: Influence of the Large Gain-Cavity Detuning on the Modulation and Static Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1.3 um InGaAs VCSELs: Influence of the Large Gain-Cavity Detuning on the Modulation and Static Performance
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Proc. of 30th European Conference on Optical Communication 2004, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14004 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Optical Communication
Note

ECOC 2004, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. Th2_4_2 QC 20100707. QC 20160222

Available from: 2010-07-07 Created: 2010-07-07 Last updated: 2016-02-22Bibliographically approved
4. Electroabsorption Modulators Suitable for 100-Gb/s Ethernet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroabsorption Modulators Suitable for 100-Gb/s Ethernet
Show others...
2008 (English)In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 29, no 9, 1014-1016 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator (TWEAM) has been improved to decrease the drive voltage. The absorption layer was optimized and together with a novel segmentation of microwave design was introduced to increase the active modulator length. The resulting -3-dBe bandwidth of fabricated devices was estimated to be 99 GHz. Extinction ratios of 10 dB back-to-back and 6.7 dB after transmission over 2.2-km long fiber were measured with an incident drive voltage of only 2 V peak to peak. This TWEAM performance is believed to constitute a new state of the art for modulators suitable for 100-Gb/s Ethernet with on-off keying.

Keyword
high-speed modulator, optoelectronics, wave-guide modulators
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11141 (URN)10.1109/LED.2008.2001970 (DOI)000259573400014 ()2-s2.0-50649101955 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100707

Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2014-09-24Bibliographically approved
5. Monolithically Integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monolithically Integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 7, no 16, 3410-3415 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A monolithically integrated distributed feedback (DFB) laser and traveling-wave electro-absorption modulator (TWEAM) with >= 100 GHz -dBe bandwidth suitable for Non-return-to-zero (NRZ) operation with on-off keying (OOK) is presented. The steady-state, small-signal modulation response, microwave reflection, chirp characteristic, and both data operation and transmission were investigated. The DFB-TWEAM was found to be an attractive candidate for future short distance communication in high bitrates systems.

Keyword
High-speed modulator; integrated device; optoelectronics; waveguide modulator
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11143 (URN)10.1109/JLT.2009.2015773 (DOI)000268347700001 ()2-s2.0-68349155533 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2012-03-13Bibliographically approved
6. Experimental characterization of high-speed 1.55 mu m buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InGaAlAs quantum-well lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental characterization of high-speed 1.55 mu m buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InGaAlAs quantum-well lasers
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, Vol. 26, no 2, 318-327 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Detailed experimental characterization is performed for 1550 nm semi-insulating regrown buried heterostructure Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers having 20 InGaAsP/InGaAlAs strain-balanced quantum wells (QWs) in the active region. Light-current-voltage performance, electrical impedance, small-signal response below and above threshold, amplified spontaneous emission spectrum below threshold and relative intensity noise spectrum are measured. Different laser parameters such as external differential quantum efficiency eta(d), background optical loss alpha(i), K-factor, D-factor, characteristic temperature T-0, differential gain dg/dn, gain-compression factor epsilon, carrier density versus current, differential carrier lifetime tau(d), optical gain spectrum below threshold, and chirp parameter alpha are extracted from these measurements. The FP lasers exhibited a high T-0 (78-86.5 degrees C) and very high-resonance frequency (23.7 GHz). The results indicate that appropriately designed lasers having a large number of InGaAsP well/InGaAlAs barrier QWs with shallow valence-band discontinuity can be useful for un-cooled high-speed direct-modulated laser applications.

Keyword
CARRIER TRANSPORT; MQW LASERS; MODULATION BANDWIDTH; INGAASP; WAVELENGTH
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11144 (URN)10.1364/JOSAB.26.000318 (DOI)000263925700017 ()2-s2.0-60549084726 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2012-03-21Bibliographically approved
7. Impact of losses in the Bragg section on the dynamics of detuned loaded DBR lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of losses in the Bragg section on the dynamics of detuned loaded DBR lasers
2010 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, Vol. 46, no 9, 1360-1367 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamics of a distributed Bragg reflector laser with optical losses in the Bragg section is studied in detail. It is found that the modulation response depends not only on the detuning of the lasing wavelength from the Bragg reflectivity peak but also on the magnitude of the waveguide losses in the Bragg section. Depending on the losses, the damping of the relaxation peak can either increase or decrease when the laser is detuned on the long wavelength flank of the Bragg peak. Hence, in order to achieve maximum modulation bandwidth of the laser, the laser needs not only to have the correct detuning but also an optimized waveguide loss in the Bragg section. The physical reason for this dependence is discussed in terms of a modified rate equation model.

Keyword
Direct modulation, distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, external cavity, semiconductor laser diode
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14005 (URN)10.1109/JQE.2010.2048013 (DOI)000282564000005 ()2-s2.0-77955133987 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20101203).Available from: 2010-07-07 Created: 2010-07-07 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
8. Dynamic properties of electrically p-n confined, epitaxially regrown 1.27 μm InGaAs single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic properties of electrically p-n confined, epitaxially regrown 1.27 μm InGaAs single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Show others...
2009 (English)In: IET optoelectronics, ISSN 1751-8768, Vol. 3, no 3, 163-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dynamic performance including chirp measurements of 1.27 mu m single-mode InGaAs/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a large gain-cavity offset is presented. The VCSELs are based on a novel p-n confinement structure with selective area epitaxial regrowth. A resonance frequency of 9.11 GHz, a slope efficiency of 0.25 W/A and an alpha-factor of 5.7 were measured. The modulation bandwidth is limited by electrical parasitics. Eye diagrams at 5 Gb/s with 7 dB extinction ratio and Q-factor around 5 were obtained. The results are compared with the performance of oxide-confined VCSELs with similar active layer and negative gain-cavity detuning.

Keyword
PERFORMANCE; VCSELS
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11146 (URN)10.1049/iet-opt.2008.0066 (DOI)000267060300006 ()2-s2.0-65949122752 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100707

Available from: 2009-09-22 Created: 2009-09-22 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved

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