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High-temperature mass spectrometric study of the vaporization process in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-SiO2
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2009 (English)In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 23, 2233-2239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry was used to study vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties of twenty samples of chromium-containing slags in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-SiO 2 system in the temperature range 1850-2750 K. Tungsten cells were used and Cr2O3 solid was used as a reference material. The system was calibrated using liquid gold. As FeO was the first emanating vapor species, monitoring of the chromium-containing species could be carried out only after the complete vaporization of FeO. This, however, was found to have very little impact on the concentration of the slags investigated. During the measurements, the ion current intensities of CrO+ and CrO +2 species in the mass spectra of the vapor over the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-SiO 2 samples were monitored and compared with those corresponding to solid Cr2O3. Data on the partial pressures of vapor species as well as the activities of Cr2O3 as a function of temperature were obtained. The results are expected to be valuable in the optimization of slag composition in high alloy steelmaking processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 23, 2233-2239 p.
Keyword [en]
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES; OXIDE MELTS; LIQUID; MIXTURES; CHROMIUM; CR2O3; FEO
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11230DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4127ISI: 000268003400015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67650366930OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11230DiVA: diva2:242347
Note
QC 2010813Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experimental and modelling studies of the thermophysical and thermochemical properties of some slag systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and modelling studies of the thermophysical and thermochemical properties of some slag systems
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to optimize the metallurgical processes it is necessary to improve the understandings of the industrial slag properties, which include thermophysical and thermochemical properties. In the present study Mass Triangle Model was applied to predict these properties. According to the model formula, a program was developed in Visual C++ environment to calculate different properties in limited solubility ternary system. Successful applications of this model in predicting viscosity, surface tension, and density have been demonstrated in the case of a number of ternary slags in liquid state, as for example, RExOy-CaF2-SiO2 (RE refer to rare earth metal), MnO-TiO2-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, BaO-FeO-Fe2O3, CaO-MnO-SiO2 etc. In addition, the method has also been extended to predict electrical conductivities and sulphide capacities, which is first attempt to compute properties. Furthermore, an extension of this model has also been performed in the present study to obtain the corresponding properties in a homogeneous ternary system. Good agreement between model calculation and literature values had demonstrated that mass triangle model offers a powerful and efficient tool for estimations of various properties of molten system only based on limited experimental information.

Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of chromium oxides-containing slags is of great importance to chromium retention in stainless steel production, in view of chromium impacts on economic costs and environmental protection. Thus, the oxidation states of chromium in slags as well as sulphide capacity of CrOx-containing slag have been studied. In the studies of oxidation state of chromium in slags, gas/slag equilibrium technique was used for CaO-SiO2-CrOx system and the ratio of Cr2+/Cr3+ in multicomponent slags was measured by X-ray absorption near edge spectra (XANES). High-temperature mass spectrometry method was also used to obtain the distribution of chromium oxides in CaO-MgO(-FeO)-Al2O3-SiO2-CrOx system. It is to be noted that the present work is probably the first to employ Knudsen cell-mass spectrometry as an effective way to estimate chromium valences through vapor species. Utilizing the data obtained in present study as well as those reported in literature, a mathematical correlation was established for estimating the ratio of Cr2+/Cr3+ as a function of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and slag basicity. The comparison between experimental valence ratio values and estimated ones presents a satisfactory agreement.

The sulphide capacities of CaO-SiO2-CrOx pseudo-ternary slags were measured using the gas-slag equilibration technique in the temperature range 1823–1923 K under two different oxygen partial pressures 9.80×10-3 and 9.88×10-4 Pa. The results showed that log10Cs varied linearly with the reciprocal temperature, and the slope was higher than the corresponding value reported in the case of the binary CaO-SiO2 of corresponding composition. By using the equation developed as part of this project relating Cr2+/Cr3+ with basicity, oxygen partial pressure and temperature, it was possible to understand the effect of CrO on the sulphide capacities; viz. the sulphide capacity shows a decreasing trend as Cr2+ replaces Ca2+ in the slag. With further increase of Cr2+ content, there are indications of the occurrence of a minimum point beyond which the sulphide capacities show a slight increasing trend. The latter is attributed to the increasing extent of the polymerization reaction releasing oxygen ions for sulphide reactions in the metasilicate region. The behavior of CrO in the slag was found to be analogous to FeO.

Estimation of liquidus and solidus temperature of slag was also carried out in the present study. The results indicated that it is possible to get a reasonable idea of the solidus temperature from X-ray radiography while DSC would indicate the liquidus temperature of slag

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. viii, 50 p.
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11232 (URN)978-91-7415-440-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-30, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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MISTRA
Note

QC 20100813

Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2013-11-12Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttp://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122457199/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

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