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A survey of policies that may increase access to home ownership for low income households
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4849-0726
2009 (English)In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 26, no 4, 248-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review article presents a systematic overview of strategies that may make home ownership affordable to more low-income households. Home ownership has been regarded as the preferred choice of tenure by most OECD countries for many decades and has often been supported with a wide range of methods that make ownership economically attractive. There are four distinct time periods of a typical “housing career”: (1) down payment accumulation stage, (2) transaction stage, (3) ownership stage and (4) selling stage. Although home ownership rates have been on the increase globally since the Second World War, recent signs indicate that this trend has been halted. However, it is argued that little is known on the actual effectiveness of most of the described policies and that a set of policies, focusing on at least the first three stages above, is needed should a government wish to encourage home ownership. Moreover, direct subsidies and grants are probably not very interesting considering the weak financial situation of most governments. Thus, selected policies would probably focus on the ability of the households to signal their characteristics and on strengthening various insurance markets so that they become open to more households at a reasonable price.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 26, no 4, 248-270 p.
Keyword [en]
Government policies; Home equity; Home ownership; Low-income housing; Mortgages
National Category
Economics Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11235DOI: 10.1080/14036090802614479Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-71649104929OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11235DiVA: diva2:248740
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Essays on risk and housing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essays on risk and housing
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a series of different types of risk on the housing market and related industries.  The six papers in this doctoral dissertation are about a number of the many dimensions of risk management on the housing market. The main message of this thesis is that it should be possible for different actors in the housing market to improve risk management. Indeed, the last years’ financial turmoil has revealed that it should not only be possible, but also necessary, to improve risk management at all levels of the economy: at household, corporate, regional, national and international level. Although the complexity of the environment in which we live and act makes it very difficult to predict and quantify risk, the development of risk management techniques should make it possible to better indentify, and reduce risk.

The first paper provides a systematic overview of a wide selection of methods or strategies used in different countries to expand but also to maintain home ownership among low income households. The second paper further discusses mortgage and home equity insurance instruments discussed in the first paper. This paper also discusses how a rental insurance policy, as an alternative to traditional rent regulation, may be constructed. Paper 3 develops a formula that might be used in order to value the rental insurance option discussed in paper 2. The fourth paper focuses on the housing building sector by discussing potential benefits of strategic alliances that the different actors in the housing construction market may establish in order to pool resources and manage development risks. The challenge of constructing reliable home price indexes has attracted scholars for many years. Paper 5 develops monthly quality-adjusted price indexes for condominiums (housing cooperative apartments) based on a unique dataset covering sales in the whole of Stockholm municipality from January 2005 to June 2009. Finally paper 6 pays attention to the large increase in housing cooperative conversions sine the 1990s, by deriving a closed-form valuation formula that might be used to value the embedded option an owner of a multi-family rental property has to sell it to a housing cooperative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xv p.
Series
Trita-BFE, ISSN 1104-4101 ; 2009 : 87
Keyword
housing risks, risk management, strategic alliances, housing construction, low-income housing, real options, tenure choice, rent regulation, housing cooperative conversion, price index
National Category
Economics Economics Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11233 (URN)978-91-977302-4-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-28, V2, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100810Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2010-08-10Bibliographically approved
2. The effect of competition and ownership policies on the housing market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of competition and ownership policies on the housing market
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation consists of five studies presented in seven essays. The overall objectives are to investigate the extent and consequences of competition on the rental housing market as well as the importance of national government policies for the substitute good, i.e. owner-occupied housing. However, each essay also has specific objectives.

Due to the characteristics of the housing market, one should not expect competition to be very fierce. The market characteristics are, for instance, capital-intensive, complicated and time-consuming construction processes as well as a limited supply of land in many areas. In fact, firms have a lot to gain from colluding and to avoid e.g. price wars. It is therefore theoretically more likely that housing companies will engage in “functional” or “strategic” competition such as the quality of housing services.

Essay I and IV analyze the unique municipal housing market in Sweden where apartment rents are determined by negotiations between the local municipal company and the local Union of Tenants. A regression analysis is applied on data from 30 municipalities. There was a strong correlation between apartment rents at local municipal markets and the level of “external” competition (measured by the price level on the market for single-family owner occupied housing), but not with “internal” competition (measured by the market share of the municipal housing company) or the capital expenditure of the municipal housing company (presumed to reflect historical construction and renovation costs for the apartments).

The dissertation also investigates the consequences on rents (essay II) and on the quality of housing services (essay III) from a local Swedish municipal housing company selling a substantial part of its apartment stock (15-40 percent) and thereby theoretically creating more competition. These essays use a quasi-experimental methodology whereby the development of the housing market in a privatization town is compared with the development in a very similar comparison town. It is found that privatization has lead to lower rents in the short- and medium-term in six out of seven privatization towns. The development of the quality of housing services was more related to the performance of each individual company and not a specific category of companies. In essay V, these results are merged and developed further.

Essay VI presents a wide range of policies available for governments wishing to increase access to home ownership for low-income households and thereby increasing the pressure on rental housing companies to reduce rents. A systematic overview of policies is provided based on the four distinct time periods of a typical ‘housing career’ of a household; i.e. down payment accumulation stage, transaction stage, ownership stage and selling stage. It is found that many policies are required to meet the specific and differing needs of households for governments wishing to encourage home ownership.

Essay VII describes that home ownership rates have increased in almost all industrialized countries during the period from World War II until mid-1990s. The essay analyses the implications of government policies and some other factors (e.g. national wealth, income distribution) on home ownership rates in 13 industrialized countries during the period 1970﷓2000. A fixed-effect model is applied on a panel data set. The most important result is that a statistically significant and positive correlation between government support and home ownership rates was found although this is only a preliminary conclusion since data was scarce.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen består av fem studier presenterade i sju essäer. Den övergripande målsättningenär att undersöka konkurrensens omfattning och effekter på bostadshyresmarknaden samtbetydelsen av statliga stödsystem för substitutvaran till hyresbostäder, nämligen olika formerför bostadsägande. Varje essä har också specifika målsättningar.Inledningsvis så bör man inte förvänta sig omfattande konkurrens på bostadshyresmarknadenpga dess särdrag, exempelvis så är byggprocessen kapitalintensiv, kompliceradoch långsam och tillgången på mark är ytterst begränsad på flera delmarknader. I själva verketså har företagen mycket att vinna från att samarbeta och undvika tex priskrig. Teoretiskt så ärdet därför mer sannolikt att bostadsföretag ägnar sig åt ”funktionell” eller ”strategisk” konkurrenssom exempelvis kvaliteten på bostadstjänster.Essä I och IV analyserar konkurrensen på den unika svenska hyresmarknaden där bostadshyrorsätts i förhandlingar mellan det lokala allmännyttiga bostadsföretaget och hyresgästföreningen.Data från 30 kommuner analyseras med hjälp av regressionsanalys. Resultatetvisade en stark korrelation mellan hyresnivån i allmännyttans bostadsbestånd på kommunnivåoch ”extern” konkurrens från liknande ’produkter’ (motsvarande prisnivån på egnahem), meninte med ”intern” konkurrens från andra bostadsföretag (motsvarande allmännyttans marknadsandel)eller allmännyttans kapitalkostnader (som antas främst motsvara byggkostnadernaför lägenheterna).Avhandlingen undersöker även konsekvenserna på hyra (essä II) och kvalitet (essä III) frånen försäljning av en omfattande del (15-40%) av en allmännyttas bostadsbestånd. Teoretisktskapar detta mer konkurrens. Dessa essäer använder sig av en kvasi-experimentell metodikvarvid utvecklingen på en konkurrensutsatt bostadsmarknad i en tätort jämförs med utvecklingeni en annan snarlik tätort. Det visade sig att hyresnivån i sex av sju konkurrensutsattatätorter hade sjunkit på kort och medellång sikt. Däremot visade sig kvalitetsnivån främstvara beroende på den enskilda hyresvärden och inte på hyresvärdens kategori (privat ellerkommunal). Essä V slår samman dessa resultat och utvecklar materialet ytterligare.Essä VI diskuterar ett stort antal medel (eng ’policies’) för en statsmakt som önskar attgöra ägande av bostaden mer tillgängligt för låginkomstgrupper och därigenom bl a ökapressen på hyrorna på bostadsmarknaden. Medlen är systematiskt beskrivna i enlighet med defyra distinkta tidsperioderna för en ’typisk’ bostadskarriär; nämligen stadiet när kontantinsatseninsparas, överlåtelsestadiet, ägandestadiet och försäljningsstadiet. Studien visade attdet troligen behövs ett flertal medel för att möta hushållens specifika och skilda behov omman avser att uppmuntra hemägande.Essä VII beskriver att andelen som äger sin bostad har ökat i nästan samtliga industriländerfrån andra världskriget fram till mitten av 1990-talet. Essän analyserar konsekvenserna avmyndighetsstöd och flera andra faktorer (tex BNP-utveckling, inkomstfördelning) för andelenhushåll som äger sin bostad i 13 industriländer under perioden 1970-2000. En fix-effektmodell appliceras på ett paneldataset. Det främsta resultatet var att det fanns en statistisktsignifikant och positiv korrelation mellan andelen som äger sin bostad och omfattningen påmyndigheternas stöd. Resultatet är dock endast preliminärt då tillgången på data varbegränsad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 52 p.
Series
Trita-INFRA, ISSN 1651-0216 ; 2005:008
Keyword
Environmental engineering and architecture, Competition, housing companies, public housing, rental housing, tenure forms, privatization, Konkurrens, privat bostadsföretag, allmännyttigt bostadsföretag, upplåtelseform, privatisering, statliga medel, Sverige, internationell
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-140 (URN)91-975358-4-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-03-11, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100831Available from: 2005-03-03 Created: 2005-03-03 Last updated: 2010-09-10Bibliographically approved
3. Risk management of the housing market: with a focus on low income households
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk management of the housing market: with a focus on low income households
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. iv p.
Series
Trita-BFE, ISSN 1104-4101 ; 05:67
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-398 (URN)91-975358-5-0 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20101130Available from: 2005-08-16 Created: 2005-08-16 Last updated: 2010-11-30Bibliographically approved

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  • ieee
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  • nn-NO
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Output format
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