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Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI).A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed.Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu binding than previously understood. Differences were also observed between MSWI bottom ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the geochemical speciation models SHM and NICA-Donnan are calibrated. Revised parameter values for speciation modelling are therefore suggested. Additions of salt or natural DOM in the influent did not change the leachate concentration of Cu. Thus, although Cl and natural DOM might be present in the influent in the field due to road salting or infiltration of soil water, this is of minor importance for the potential environmental impact from MSWI bottom ash.This thesis allows estimates of long-term leaching and toxicity to be improved and demonstrates the need for broadening the system boundaries in order to highlight the trade-offs between different types of impact. For decisions on whether incinerator residues should be utilised or landfilled, the use of a life cycle perspective in combination with more detailed assessments is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , x, 54 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1046
Keyword [en]
MSWI bottom ash, wood ash, recycling, LCA, environmental assessment, geochemical speciation modelling, dissolved organic matter, copper (Cu)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9155ISBN: 978-91-7415-121-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9155DiVA: diva2:25338
Public defence
2008-10-17, Lecture hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100914Available from: 2008-10-08 Created: 2008-09-25 Last updated: 2010-09-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Environmental systems analysis of the use of bottom ash from incineration of municipal waste for road construction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental systems analysis of the use of bottom ash from incineration of municipal waste for road construction
2006 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 48, no 1, 26-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bottom ash, originating from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), is a potential road construction material. The aim of this study was to describe what differences in resource use and emissions that can be expected if crushed rock in the sub-base of a road in the Stockholm region in Sweden were to be substituted by MSWI bottom ash, taking into account the whole life cycle of the road and including alternative disposal of the bottom ash. An environmental systems analysis approach based on a life cycle perspective was outlined and used in a case study. It was found that the studied alternatives would cause different types of potential environmental impact; whereas, crushed rock in the road's sub-base would lead to larger use of resources, the alternative with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base leads to a larger contaminant leaching. The results are sensitive to the transport distance for the road material and to conditions affecting the leaching from the road. The differences between energy uses in the two alternatives derive mainly from production of crushed rock and from landfilling of MSWI bottom ash, whereas, the metal emissions occur in the use stage of the road's life cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2006
Keyword
Disposal, Environmental impact, LCA, MSWI bottom ash, Waste management
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7039 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2005.11.004 (DOI)000238811000003 ()2-s2.0-33744937319 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2004-1779
Note

QC 20100914. Uppdaterad från Manuskript till Artikel (20100914)

Available from: 2005-09-28 Created: 2005-09-28 Last updated: 2015-07-21Bibliographically approved
2. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
2009 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 7, 2071-2077 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case Studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash Was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled oil forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Keyword
life-cycle assessment, road construction, solid-waste, decision-making, by-products, bottom ash, methodology, sweden, input, model
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18462 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.006 (DOI)000266468400011 ()2-s2.0-67349225121 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2004-1779
Note

QC 20100525

Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Copper(II) binding to dissolved organic matter fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copper(II) binding to dissolved organic matter fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachate
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 12, 4286-4291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information on Cu speciation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash leachate is needed for Cu leaching predictions and toxicity estimates. The complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachates from a stored MSWI bottom ash was studied potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode. More than 95% of the copper was bound to DOM in the hydrophilic fraction of the leachate, indicating that the hydrophilic acids contribute to Cu complex formation. The hydrophilic acids constituted 58% of the dissolved organic carbon in the ash leachate. Comparisons between experimental results and speciation calculations with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm humic model indicated differences between the ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the models have been calibrated. The ratio of carboxylic binding sites to phenolic binding sites was 2 times larger in ash DOM, and the Cu-binding affinity of the former was stronger than accounted for by the generic Cu-binding parameters. The Cu-binding affinity of the phenolic sites, on the other hand, was weaker. When these parameters were adjusted, a good description of the experimental data was obtained.

Keyword
donnan model parameters, metal-ion binding, humic substances, road construction, proton-binding, forest floor, water, complexation, precipitation, competition
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-16684 (URN)10.1021/es062954g (DOI)000247187600014 ()2-s2.0-34250804796 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash as affected by salt or dissolved organic matter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash as affected by salt or dissolved organic matter
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 2, 506-512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to manage municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash safely, risk assessments, including the prediction of leaching under different field conditions, are necessary. In this study, the influence of salt or dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the influent on metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash was investigated in a column experiment. The presence of salt (0.1 M NaCI) resulted in a small increase of As leaching, whereas no impact on leachate concentration was found when lakewater DOM (35.1 mg/I dissolved organic carbon) was added. Most of the added DOM was retained within the material. Further, X-ray spectroscopy revealed that Cu(II) was the dominating form of Cu and that it probably Occurred as a CuO-type mineral. The CU2+ activity in the MSWI bottom ash leachate was most likely determined by the dissolution of CuO together with the formation of Cu-DOM complexes and possibly also by adsorption to (hydr)oxide minerals. The addition of lake DOM in the influent resulted in lower saturation indices for CuO in the leachates. which may be due to slow CuO dissolution kinetics in combination with strong Cu-DOM complexation.

Keyword
environmental-impact, trace-elements, arsenate, carbon, water, ph, complexation, fractions, goethite, sorption
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18063 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2008.03.017 (DOI)000261901800003 ()2-s2.0-56349094227 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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