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Wide area monitoring and control systems - application communication requirements and simulation
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today’s electrical transmission & distribution systems, are facing a number of challenges related to changing environmental, technical and business factors. Among these factors are, increased environmental restrictions leading to higher share of production from renewable and uncontrollable sources as well as local environmental concerns regarding construction of new transmission and distribution lines. The re-regulation of the electricity market has created a dynamic environment in which multiple organizations have to coordinate and cooperate in the operation and control of the power system. Finally, the high rate of devel-opment within the ICT field is creating many new opportunities for power system opera-tion and control, thanks to introduction of new technologies for measurement, communi-cation and automation.

As a result of these factors, Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been proposed. WAMC systems utilize new ICT based technologies to offer more accurate and timely data on the state of the power system. WAMC systems utilize Phasor Measure-ment Units (PMUs) that have higher data rates and are time synchronised using, GPS satel-lites. This allows synchronized observation of the dynamics of the power system, making it possible to manage the system at a more efficient and responsive level and apply wide area control and protection schemes. The success WAMC systems, on the other hand, are largely dependent on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure that would support them.

This thesis investigates the requirements on, and suitability of the ICT systems that support WAMC systems. This was done by identifying WAMC applications and the elicitation of their requirements. Furthermore, a set of simulation projects were carried out to determine the communication system characteristics such as delay and the impact of this delay on the WAMC system.

This thesis has several contributions. First, it provides summary and analysis of WAMC application priorities and requirements in the Nordic region. Secondly it provides simula-tion based comparison and evaluation of communication paradigms for WAMC systems. The research documented in this thesis addresses these paradigms by providing a compari-son and evaluation through simulation. Thirdly, the thesis provides insight to the possible sources of delay in WAMC architecture and the impact of these delays on data quality specifically data incompleteness. This provides insight on what applications are important to practitioners and what is the expected performance of these applications, as seen from the power system control and operation point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , viii, 117 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2009:045
Keyword [en]
Wide Area Monitoring and Control systems, Phasor Measurements Units, Power System Communication, SCADA systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11316OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11316DiVA: diva2:273595
Presentation
2009-11-06, Seminarierummet, KTH, Osquldas väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2009-10-22 Created: 2009-10-22 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Survey on Priorities and Communication Requirements for PMU-based Applications in the Nordic Region
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survey on Priorities and Communication Requirements for PMU-based Applications in the Nordic Region
2009 (English)In: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: Innovative Ideas Toward the Electrical Grid of the Future, IEEE , 2009, 1183-1190 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) promise to offer more accurate and timely data on the state of the power system, thus, increasing the possibilities to manage the system at a more efficient and responsive level and apply wide area control and protection schemes. This paper presents results of a survey on communications and technical requirements for applications based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The survey was carried out in the Nordic Region with participants from Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and researchers. The survey focused on documenting the stage of research and development among TSOs and researchers in the Nordic Region, as well as, their plans and visions for the future. This includes planned PMU deployments and prioritization of PMU based applications. Furthermore, a significant part of the survey was an elicitation of communication requirements for applications based on PMU data. In the paper, an examination of the time requirements for these applications in terms of delays and samples per second and comparison similar published specifications is provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2009
Keyword
Phasor Measurment Unit, Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC), WAMC applications communication requirements
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25156 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2009.5281956 (DOI)000276834600180 ()2-s2.0-74949112107 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2234-0 (ISBN)
Conference
2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: Innovative Ideas Toward the Electrical Grid of the Future; Bucharest; Romania; 28 June 2009 through 2 July 2009
Note

QC 20101011

Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2014-10-02Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems in IP-based Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems in IP-based Networks
2009 (English)In: 2009 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, VOLS 1-8, New York, USA: IEEE , 2009, 2514-2521 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) is becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Many aspects of these systems are being addressed and researched. These systems depend largely on high performance communication architecture. This paper addresses the analysis of PMU systems and communication architectures by utilizing simulation tools to implement and analyze models. Specifically, focusing on the transmission of Phasor samples to the Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) and control signals from the WAMC systems back to substations devices. This done by implementing shared and dedicated communication network scenarios to analyze delays. This is the first step to analyzing the performance and scalability of the IT infrastructure to support PMU-based Systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: IEEE, 2009
Series
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting-PESGM
Keyword
PMU Communication, Wide Area Monitoring and Control, communication simulation, PMU communication delays
National Category
Computer and Information Science Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25158 (URN)10.1109/PES.2009.5275818 (DOI)000275524901080 ()2-s2.0-77649297519 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-4240-9 (ISBN)
Conference
General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society, Calgary, CANADA, JUL 26-30, 2009
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2011-03-04Bibliographically approved
3. Investigation of communication delays and data incompleteness in multi-PMU wide area monitoring and control systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of communication delays and data incompleteness in multi-PMU wide area monitoring and control systems
2009 (English)In: 2009 International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2009, 2009, 144-149 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) are becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. An aspect which is less well investigated is the WAMC system's dependence on high performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of simulations performed in order to determine the characteristics of communication delays incurred in WAMC systems using multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. Such systems normally include one or several Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) that collect and sort the data from the PMUs. Two specific parameters, completeness and currency of the PMU data has been studied as part of the simulations. The results indicate that configuration of central nodes such as the PDC needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application being supported.

Keyword
Monitoring systems data quality, Pmu based application, Wide area monitoring and control systems performance, Wide area monitoring system
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25159 (URN)000289663400025 ()2-s2.0-77950681692 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-5477-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2009 International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2009; Sharjah; 10 November 2009 through 12 November 2009
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2011-05-09Bibliographically approved
4. Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications
2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 3, 1372-1380 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phasor-based wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development, and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. These applications are either local applications using data from one or a few phasor measurement units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system's dependence on high-performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of research performed in order to determine the requirements of transmission system operators on the performance of WAMC systems in general as well as the characteristics of communication delays incurred in centralized systems that utilize multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. This paper presents a summary of requirements from transmission system operators with regards to a specific set of applications and simulations of communication networks with a special focus on centralized applications. The results of the simulations indicate that the configuration of central nodes in centralized WAMC systems needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2011
Keyword
Data quality, performance, phasor-measurement-unit (PMU)-based applications, wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems power system communication
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25160 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2106805 (DOI)000292167800008 ()2-s2.0-79959706192 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20101011 Updated from submitted to published

Available from: 2012-10-30 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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