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Erythropoietin modulation of astrocyte water permeability as a component of neuroprotection.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0578-4003
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2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 5, 1602-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Disturbed brain water homeostasis with swelling of astroglial cells is a common complication in stroke, trauma, and meningitis and is considered to be a major cause of permanent brain damage. Astroglial cells possess the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that glutamate, acting on group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), increases the permeability of astrocyte AQP4, which, in situations of hypoxia-ischemia, will increase astrocyte water uptake. Here we report that erythropoietin (EPO), which in recent years has emerged as a potent neuro-protective agent, antagonizes the effect of a group I mGluR agonist on astrocyte water permeability. Activation of group I mGluRs triggers fast and highly regular intracellular calcium oscillations and we show that EPO interferes with this signaling event by altering the frequency of the oscillations. These effects of EPO are immediate, in contrast to the neuroprotective effects of EPO that are known to depend upon gene activation. Our findings indicate that EPO may directly reduce the risk of astrocyte swelling in stroke and other brain insults. In support of this conclusion we found that EPO reduced the neurological symptoms in a mouse model of primary brain edema known to depend upon AQP4 water transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 106, no 5, 1602-7 p.
Keyword [en]
Aquaporin 4; Brain edema; Glutamate
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Neurosciences Cell Biology
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11360DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812708106ISI: 000263074600056PubMedID: 19164545ScopusID: 2-s2.0-60849093177OAI: diva2:274720

QC 20150727

Available from: 2009-10-30 Created: 2009-10-30 Last updated: 2015-07-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modeling and Data Analysis in Cellular Biophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Data Analysis in Cellular Biophysics
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cellular biophysics deals with the physical aspects of cell biology. This thesis presents a number of studies where mathematical models and data analysis can increase our understanding of this field.

During recent years development in experimental methods and mathematical modeling have driven the amount of data and complexity in our understanding of cellular biology to a new level. This development has made it possible to describe cellular systems quantitatively where only qualitative descriptions were previously possible. To deal with the complex data and models that arise in this kind of research a combination of tools from physics and cell biology has to be applied; this constitutes a field we call cellular biophysics. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to develop novel approaches in this field. I present eight studies where quantitative modeling and analysis are involved.

The first two studies concern cells interacting with their surrounding environment in the kidney. These cells sense fluid flow and respond with calcium (Ca2+) signals. The interaction between fluid and cells in renal tubular epithelium can be described by biomechanical models. This thesis describes a mathematical model of flow sensing by cilia with focus on the flow frequency response and time delay between the mechanical stress and the Ca2+ signaling response.

Intracellular Ca2+ is kept at a very low level compared to the extracellular environment, while several intracellular compartments have higher Ca2+ concentration than the cytoplasm. This makes Ca2+ an efficient messenger for intra­cellular signaling, the process whereby signals are transduced from an extracellular stimulus to an intracellular activity such as gene expression. An important type of Ca2+ signaling is oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration which occur due to the concerted interplay between different transport mechanisms within a cell. A study in this thesis examines ways to explain these mechanisms in terms of a mathematical model. Another study in the thesis reports that erythropoietin can regulate the water permeability of astrocytes and that it alters the pattern of Ca2+ oscillations in astrocytes. In this thesis the analysis of this Ca2+ signaling is described.

Simulations described in one of the studies show how different geometries can affect the fluorescence recovery and that geometrically constrained reactions can trap diffusing receptors in dendritic spines. When separate time scales are present in a fluorescence revovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiment the reaction and diffusion components can be studied separately.

Applying single particle tracking methods to the migration trajectories of natural killer cells shows that there is a correlation between the formation of conjugates and transient confinement zones (TCZs) in these trajectories in vitro. TCZs are also present in in vivo experiments where they show strong similarities with the in vitro situation. This approach is a novel concept in data analysis methods for tracking immune cells.

Abstract [sv]

Cellens biologiska fysik behandlar de fysikaliska aspekterna av cellbiologi. Denna avhandling presenterar ett antal studier där matematiska modeller och dataanalys kan öka vår förståelse av detta område.

Under senare år har utvecklingen av experimentella metoder och matematisk modellering drivit mängden data och komplexiteten i vår förståelse av cellbiologi till en ny nivå. Denna utveckling har gjort det möjligt att beskriva cellulära system kvantitativt där endast kvalitativa beskrivningar tidigare var möjliga. För att hantera de komplexa data och modeller som uppstår i denna typ av forskning krävs en kombination av verktyg från fysik och cellbiologi; detta utgör ett område vi kallar cellens biologiska fysik. Syftet med denna avhandling är att utveckla nya metoder inom detta område. Jag presenterar åtta studier där kvantitativ modellering och analys ingår.

De första två studierna behandlar hur celler interagerar med sin omgivning i njurarna. Dessa celler känner av ett vätskeflöde och svarar med kalcium (Ca2+)-signaler. Samspelet mellan vätska och celler i tubulärt njurepitel kan beskrivas med biomekaniska modeller. Denna avhandling beskriver en matematisk modell för flödeskänslighet hos cilier med fokus på flödesfrekvenssvar och tidsfördröjningen mellan den mekaniska påverkan och Ca2+-signaleringssvaret.

Intracellulärt Ca2+ hålls på en mycket låg nivå jämfört med den extracellulära miljön, samtidigt som flera intracellulära delar har högre Ca2+-koncentrationen än cytoplasman. Detta gör Ca2+ till en effektiv bärare för intracellulär signalering, den process där signaler överförs från ett extracellulärt stimuli till en intracellulär händelse, exempelvis genuttryck. En viktig typ av Ca2+-signalering är de oscillationer i intracellulär Ca2+-koncentration som uppstår på grund av det ordnade samspelet mellan olika transportmekanismer i en cell. En studie  i denna avhandling undersöker olika sätt att förklara dessa mekanismer i form av en matematisk modell. En annan studie i avhandlingen rapporterar att erytropoietin kan reglera vattenpermeabilitet av astrocyter och att det ändrar mönstret av Ca2+-oscillationer i astrocyter. I denna avhandling beskrivs analysen av denna Ca2+-signalering.

Simuleringar som beskrivs i en av studierna visar hur olika geometrier kan påverka fluorescensåterhämtning och att geometriskt begränsade reaktioner kan fånga in receptorer in i dendrittaggar. När separata tidsskalor förekommer i ett fluorescence revovery after photobleaching (FRAP)-experiment kan reaktions- och diffusionskomponenter studeras separat.

Tillämpande av single particle tracking-metoder på naturliga mördarceller visar att det finns ett samband mellan bildandet av konjugat och transient confinement zones (TCZs) i dessa trajektorier in vitro. TCZs förekommer också i in vivo-experiment där de visar stora likheter med in vitro-situationen. Denna strategi är ett nytt grepp inom dataanalys-metoder för att spåra immunceller.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. viii, 72 p.
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2009:60
National Category
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11368 (URN)978-91-7415-492-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-20, FD5, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
QC 20100726Available from: 2009-11-03 Created: 2009-10-30 Last updated: 2010-07-26Bibliographically approved

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