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Josephson junction transmission lines as tunable artificial crystals
Stockholm University, Physics. (Quantum and Field Theory)
Stockholm University, Physics. (Quantum and Field Theory)
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9881-7857
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2011 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 1, 014511- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate one-dimensional Josephson junction arrays with generalized unit cells, beyond a single junction or SQUID, as a circuit approach to engineer band gaps. Within a specific frequency range, of the order of the single junction plasma frequency, the dispersion relation becomes gapped and the impedance becomes purely imaginary. We derive the parameter dependence of this gap and suggest designs to lower it to microwave frequencies. The gap can be tuned in a wide frequency range by applying external flux, and persists in the presence of small imperfections. These arrays, which can be thought of as tunable artificial crystals, may find use in applications ranging filters to the protection of quantum bits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 83, no 1, 014511- p.
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11552DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.014511ISI: 000286741100005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79551566674OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11552DiVA: diva2:277683
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20110310 Ändrad från Manuskript (preprint) till Artikel i tidskrift 20110310

Available from: 2009-11-20 Created: 2009-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Intermodulation in microresonators: for microwave amplification and nanoscale surface analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermodulation in microresonators: for microwave amplification and nanoscale surface analysis
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work explores the effects of weak nonlinearity on harmonic oscillators.Two particular systems are studied experimentally: A superconductingresonator formed from a coplanar waveguide that oscillates at microwave frequencies,and the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) vibratingat ultrasonic frequencies. Both of these systems are described in the introduction,followed by a theory chapter giving a general theoretical framework for nonlinear oscillators. Basic properties of nonlinear oscillators, such asbifurcation and intermodulation, are explained using simple models. Experimental methods, including cryogenic and microwave measurement techniques,are described in some detail.

The nonlinear superconducting resonator is studied for use as a parametric amplifier. A strong drive tone, called the pump, drives the oscillator nearthe point of bifurcation. A second, much weaker drive signal that is slightlydetuned from the pump, will cause energy to move from the pump to the signal, giving signal amplification. We have measured a signal gain greaterthan 22 dB in a bandwidth of 30 kHz, for a resonator pumped at 7.6 GHz.This type of amplifier is phase-sensitive, meaning that signals in phase withthe pump will be amplified, but signals in quadrature phase of the pump will be deamplified. Phase-sensitivity has important implications on the amplifier’snoise properties. With a parametric amplifier, a signal can be amplified without any additional noise being added by the amplifier, something that is fundamentally impossible for a standard amplifier.

The vibrating AFM cantilever becomes a nonlinear oscillator when it is interacting with a surface. When driven with two frequencies, the amplitudeand phase of the cantilever’s response will develop mixing products, or intermodulation products, that are very sensitive to the exact form of the nonlinearity. Very small changes in the surface properties will be detectable when measuring the intermodulation products. Simultaneously measuring many intermodulation products, or acquiring an intermodulation spectrum,allows one to reconstruct the tip-surface interaction. Intermodulation AFM increases the sensitivity of the measurement or the contrast of the acquiredimages, and provides a means of rapidly measuring the nonlinear tip-surface interaction. The method promises to enhance the functionality of the AFM beyond simple topography measurement, towards quantitative analysis of the chemical or material properties of the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. v, 106 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2009:66
Keyword
Superconductivity, Atomic Force Microscopy, Nonlinear oscillators, Parametric amplification
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11593 (URN)978-91-7415-508-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-11, FB54, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21,, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20100812

Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-11-20 Last updated: 2012-08-30Bibliographically approved

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Lidmar, JackHaviland, David

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