Intermodulation in microresonators: for microwave amplification and nanoscale surface analysis
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This work explores the effects of weak nonlinearity on harmonic oscillators.Two particular systems are studied experimentally: A superconductingresonator formed from a coplanar waveguide that oscillates at microwave frequencies,and the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) vibratingat ultrasonic frequencies. Both of these systems are described in the introduction,followed by a theory chapter giving a general theoretical framework for nonlinear oscillators. Basic properties of nonlinear oscillators, such asbifurcation and intermodulation, are explained using simple models. Experimental methods, including cryogenic and microwave measurement techniques,are described in some detail.
The nonlinear superconducting resonator is studied for use as a parametric amplifier. A strong drive tone, called the pump, drives the oscillator nearthe point of bifurcation. A second, much weaker drive signal that is slightlydetuned from the pump, will cause energy to move from the pump to the signal, giving signal amplification. We have measured a signal gain greaterthan 22 dB in a bandwidth of 30 kHz, for a resonator pumped at 7.6 GHz.This type of amplifier is phase-sensitive, meaning that signals in phase withthe pump will be amplified, but signals in quadrature phase of the pump will be deamplified. Phase-sensitivity has important implications on the amplifier’snoise properties. With a parametric amplifier, a signal can be amplified without any additional noise being added by the amplifier, something that is fundamentally impossible for a standard amplifier.
The vibrating AFM cantilever becomes a nonlinear oscillator when it is interacting with a surface. When driven with two frequencies, the amplitudeand phase of the cantilever’s response will develop mixing products, or intermodulation products, that are very sensitive to the exact form of the nonlinearity. Very small changes in the surface properties will be detectable when measuring the intermodulation products. Simultaneously measuring many intermodulation products, or acquiring an intermodulation spectrum,allows one to reconstruct the tip-surface interaction. Intermodulation AFM increases the sensitivity of the measurement or the contrast of the acquiredimages, and provides a means of rapidly measuring the nonlinear tip-surface interaction. The method promises to enhance the functionality of the AFM beyond simple topography measurement, towards quantitative analysis of the chemical or material properties of the surface.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , v, 106 p.
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2009:66
Superconductivity, Atomic Force Microscopy, Nonlinear oscillators, Parametric amplification
Condensed Matter Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11593ISBN: 978-91-7415-508-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11593DiVA: diva2:277877
2009-12-11, FB54, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21,, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Haviland, David, Professor
QC 201008122009-12-042009-11-202012-08-30Bibliographically approved
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