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The relationship between hygroexpansion, tensile stiffness, and mechano–sorptive creep in bleached hardwood kraft pulps
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Espoo, Finland.
Metsä-Botnia, Joutseno Mill, Lappeenranta, Finland.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
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2010 (English)In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 63, no 1, 231- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hygroexpansion coefficient and tensile stiffness are important parameters in many paper applications. This study compares several bleached industrial hardwood kraft pulps, comprising five eucalypt pulps from South America, Europe, and Africa as well as an acacia pulp from Asia and a birch pulp from Scandinavia. Refined and unrefined pulps are compared. The results indicate significant differences in hygroexpansion but smaller differences in tensile stiffness index at comparable densities. No single factor offering a reasonable explanation of these differences in hygroexpansion coefficient, such as carbohydrate composition, fibre dimensions, or fibre form, was found. However, correlation between hygroexpansion coefficient and the mechano-sorptive creep stiffness was observed. We suggest that the hygroexpansion coefficient at a given tensile stiffness level can be used to rank pulps in terms of their mechano-sorptive creep properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 63, no 1, 231- p.
Keyword [en]
Mechano–sorptive creep, hygroexpansion, dimensional stability, eucalypt, birch, acacia
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11719ISI: 000279222500012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77956655760OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11719DiVA: diva2:280046
Note

QC 20100629

Available from: 2009-12-08 Created: 2009-12-08 Last updated: 2014-04-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strategies for improving kraftliner pulp properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for improving kraftliner pulp properties
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

A large part of the world paper manufacturing consists of production of corrugated board components, kraftliner and fluting, that are used in many different types of corrugated boxes. Because these boxes are stored and transported, they are often subjected to changes in relative humidity. These changes together with mechanical loads will increase the deformation of the boxes compared to the case where the same loads are applied in a static environment. This enlarged creep due to the changes in relative humidity is called mechano-sorptive or accelerated creep. Mechano-sorptive creep forces producers to use high safety factors when designing boxes, and therefore, this is one of the key properties of kraftliner boards.

 

Different strategies to decrease mechano-sorptive creep, and to simultaneously gain more knowledge about the causes for this phenomenon in paper, are the aim of this work. Derivatised and underivatised black liquor lignins, a by-product produced in pulp mills in large quantities, have been used together with biomimetic methods, to modify the properties of kraftliner pulp. Furthermore, the properties of kraftliner pulp have been compared to other pulps in order to evaluate the influence of fibre morphological factors, such as fibre width and shape factor, on the mechano-sorptive creep. In addition the influence of the chemical composition of the kraftliner pulp has been evaluated both by means of treating a kraftliner pulp with chlorite and xylanase and by producing pulps with different chemical composition.

 

By using lignin and biomimetic methods, to create radical coupling reactions, it has been shown that it is possible to increase the wet strength of kraftliner pulp sheets. This method of treating the pulp showed, however, no significant effects on the mechano-sorptive creep. The addition of an apolar suberin-like lignin derivative, which has been shown to be possible to produce from natural resources, did show a positive effect on mechano-sorptive creep properties, but at the expense of stiffness properties in constant climate. Different pulps were compared with a kraftliner pulp and it was observed that the ratio between tensile stiffness and hygroexpansion can be used to estimate the mechano-sorptive creep properties. The hardwood kraft pulps investigated had lower hygroexpansion, probably due to more slender and straighter fibres, and higher tensile stiffness, probably due to lower lignin content. As the lignin content was varied by different methods in kraft pulps, it was observed that increased lignin content gives an increased hygroexpansion and decreased tensile stiffness as well as an increased mechano-sorptive creep. There were also indications of increased mechano-sorptive creep due to higher xylan content.

 

 

Abstract [sv]

En stor del av världens papperstillverkning utgörs av produktion av wellpappkomponenter, kraftliner och fluting, som används i en uppsjö av olika wellpapplådor. När dessa lådor lagras och transporteras utsätts de ofta för förändringar i relativa luftfuktigheten. Dessa förändringar tillsammans med mekanisk belastning ökar lådornas deformation jämfört med om samma belastning skulle ha applicerats vid ett statiskt klimat. Denna förhöjda krypning på grund av förändringarna i relativ luftfuktighet kallas mekanosorptiv- eller accelererad krypning. Mekanosorptiv krypning tvingar producenterna att ha höga säkerhetsmarginaler vid dimensioneringar av lådor och är därför en av nyckelegenskaperna för kraftliner.

 

Olika strategier för att minska denna effekt, och på samma gång erövra mer kunskap om orsakerna till detta fenomen, har varit syftet med arbetet. Derivatiserade och oderivatiserade svartlutslignin, en biprodukt möjlig att få ut i stora kvantiteter från massabruk, har används tillsammans med biomimetriska metoder, för att modifiera kraftlinermassas egenskaper. Dessutom har kraftlinermassans egenskaper jämförts med andra massors egenskaper för att utvärdera inverkan av fibermorfologiska faktorer, såsom fiberbredd och fibreform på det mekanosorptiva krypet. Också inverkan av den kemiska sammansättningen av kraftliner massan har undersökts både genom behandling med klorit och xylanas och genom att producera massor med olika kemiska sammansättningar.

 

Genom att använda lignin och biomimetriska metoder för att skapa radikal-kopplingsreaktioner har det visats på möjligheten att öka våtstyrkan i massa-ark. Det här sättet att behandla massa visade dessvärre inga signifikanta effekter på det mekanosorptiva krypet. Tillsatts av ett apolärt suberin-liknande ligninderivat, som visats möjligt att producera ur naturliga råmaterial, visade en positiv effekt på det mekanosorptiva krypegenskaperna även om det var på bekostnad av styvheten vid konstant klimat. Olika massor jämfördes med en kraftlinermassa och det observerades att relationen mellan dragstyvhet och hygroexpansion kan användas för att uppskatta de mekanosorptiva krypegenskaperna. Lövvedssulfatmassorna som undersöktes hade lägre hygroexpansion, antagligen beroende på smalare och rakare fibrer, och högre dragstyvhet, troligen beroende på en lägre ligninhalt. När ligninhalten varierades i sulfatmassor med olika metoder observerades att ökad ligninhalt ger en ökad hygroexpansion och minskad dragstyvhet liksom en ökad mekanosorptiv krypning. Dessutom fanns indikationer på en ökad mekanosorptiv krypning till följd av högre xylaninnehåll.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 43 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:70
Keyword
lignin, xylan, kraftliner pulp, mechano-sorptive creep, hygroexpansion, stiffness, fibre shape, fibre width, lignin, xylan, kraftlinermassa, mekanosorptivt kryp, hygroexpansion, styvhet, fiberform, fiberbredd
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9718 (URN)978-91-7415-175-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-19, E2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100629Available from: 2008-12-08 Created: 2008-12-01 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
2. Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood: Effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, and physical properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood: Effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, and physical properties
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Converting wood into paper is a complex process involving many different stages, one of which is pulping. Pulping involves liberating the wood fibres from each other, which can be done either chemically or mechanically. This thesis focuses on the most common chemical pulping method, the kraft cooking process, and especially on a recently developed improvement of the impregnation phase, which is the first part of a kraft cook.

Extended impregnation kraft cooking (EIC) technique is demonstrated to be an improvement of the kraft pulping process and provides a way to utilize softwood to a higher degree, at higher pulp yield. We demonstrate that it is possible to produce softwood (Picea abies) kraft pulp using a new cooking technique, resulting in a pulp that can be defibrated without inline refining at as high lignin content as 8% on wood, measured as kappa numbers above 90. Lignin is the wood constituent that holds the wood fibres together in the wood matrix. The new cooking technique uses the differences in reaction rate between the diffusion and consumption of hydroxide ions; it is used to ensure a homogenous impregnation of wood chips at lower impregnation temperatures and longer impregnation times than are generally used in the industry. The applied cooking temperatures are also substantially lower than those used in conventional kraft pulping systems, promoting uniform delignification. This results in a narrower kappa number distribution than in lab-cooked conventional kraft pulp.

High-kappa-number pulps were investigated for pulp sheet properties such as tensile strength, tensile stiffness, and compression strength. It was demonstrated that an EIC pulp of kappa number 95 has strength properties comparable to those of a conventional pulp of kappa number 82. Comparing the effects of starch multilayers on conventional and EIC pulps reveals similar effects. The use of the starch multilayer treatment increased the tensile index and decreased the tensile stiffness and short-span compression test (SCT) indices.

The EIC technique has also been used to produce a series of bleachable-grade pulps. The results indicate the possibility of increasing the lignin content of the pulp entering the oxygen delignification stage, since the reject content of gently defibered pulp is lower than 0.1% at kappa number 49.

In this thesis, we recommend that wood chips be impregnated for 2 h at 110 °C to neutralize acidic compounds in the wood and impregnate the chips with cooking chemicals, and that the ensuing cook be performed at 135–140 °C, depending on the target kappa number. We also recommend increasing the available amounts of cooking chemicals in the impregnation stage by using a higher liquor-to-wood ratio and keeping the alkali profile fairly high in the ensuing cook. This concept will reduce the amount of reject material, increase the pulping uniformity, and increase the selectivity towards lignin degradation in the kraft cook.

Abstract [sv]

Omvandling av ved till papper är en komplicerad process som består av många olika steg där ett är massaframställningen (eng. pulping). Massaframställning medför att vedfibrerna frigörs från varandra på kemisk eller mekanisk väg. Denna avhandling fokuserar på den vanligaste kemiska metoden, sulfatkokning och speciellt den nyligen utvecklade förbättringen av impregnerings fasen, som är den första delen av ett sulfatkok.

Här visas att Extended Impregnation kraft Cooking (EIC) innebär en förbättring av sulfatkokningen och ett sätt att uppnå högre vedutnyttjande vid högre utbyte för barrved. Vi visar att det är möjligt att producera barrvedsmassa med en ny kokningsprincip som resulterar i en massa som är defibrerbar utan inline-raffinering vid så högt lignin innehåll som 8% (på ved), mätt som kappatal över 90. Lignin är den vedkomponent som håller ihop vedfibrerna i vedmatrisen. Kokningsprincipen utnyttjar skillnaderna i reaktionshastighet mellan diffusion och konsumtion av hydroxidjoner och nyttjas till att skapa en homogen impregnering av vedflisen vid lägre impregneringstemperatur och under längre tid än vad som vanligen används i industrin. De använda koktemperaturerna är också betydligt lägre än vid konventionell sulfatkokning vilket gynnar jämn delignifiering. Detta resulterar i en smalare kappatalsfördelning jämfört med laboratoriekokade konventionella massor.

Massor med höga kappatal undersöktes med avseende på egenskaper hos handark, såsom dragstyrka, dragstyvhet och kompressionsstyrka Det visades att handark från EIC massa vid kappatal 95 hade jämförbara styrkeegenskaper med konventionell massa vid kappatal 82. Vid jämförelse av effekten av stärkelse multilager på konventionella och EIC massor avslöjar liknande effekter. Användningen av stärkelsemultilager ökade dragindex och minskade dragstyvhets- och kompressions index (SCT, short-compression test).

Kokprincipen har även använts för att ta fram en serie blekbara massor. Resultaten visar på möjligheten att öka lignininnehållet i massan in till i syrgasdelignifierings-steget eftersom spetinnehållet för milt defibrerad massa var lägre än 0,1% vid kappatal 49.

I den här avhandlingen rekommenderar vi att vedflis impregneras i 2 timmar vid 110 °C för att neutralisera sura komponenter i veden och impregnera flisen med kokkemikalier, samt att utföra det efterföljande koket vid 135–140 °C beroende på önskat kappatal. Vi rekommenderar även att öka den tillgängliga mängden kokkemikalier i impregneringssteget genom att använda högre vätske-ved förhållande och att hålla alkali profilen relativt hög i det efterföljande koket. Detta koncept reducerar spetmängden, ger jämnare kokning och ökar selektiviteten för nedbrytning av lignin i sulfatkoket.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009. 40 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:59
Keyword
high kappa number pulp, extended impregnation, softwood, spruce, picea abies, pine, pinus sylvestris, uniform delignification, kappa number distribution, reject, yield, tensile index, tensile stiffness index, SCT, starch multilayers, mechano-sorptive creep, hygroexpansion, dimensional stability, eucalypt, birch, acacia
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11721 (URN)978-91-7415-496-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-12-18, STFI-salen, Innventia AB, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120216Available from: 2009-12-09 Created: 2009-12-08 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved

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