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Out-of-Plane Knife-Gate Microvalves for Controlling Large Gas Flows
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9327-2544
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
Show others and affiliations
2006 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 15, no 5, 1281-1288 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper considers design issues for microvalves for large gas flow control. It introduces out-of-plane knife-gate microvalves as a novel design concept and a proportional microvalve concept for pressure control applications. The design of three different actuator-gate configurations and first prototypes are presented. The first valve prototypes feature thermal silicon-aluminum bimorph actuators and the pressure-flow performance per chip area of the demonstrator valve presented is greatly increased using out-of-plane actuation and an out-of-plane orifice. The characterization of the actuators and of the pressure-flow performance is presented. The prototype valve allows for a flow change of Delta Q = 3.4 standard liters per minute (SLPM) at a pressure change of Delta P = 95 kPa (P-in = 196.3 kPa, P-out = 101.3 kPa) on an active chip area of only 2.3 x 3.7 mm(2).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2006. Vol. 15, no 5, 1281-1288 p.
Keyword [en]
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Engineering, Mechanical
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11827DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2006.880279ISI: 000241410600027Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33749984576OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11827DiVA: diva2:284094
Note

QC20100727

Available from: 2010-01-04 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2015-06-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wafer-level heterogeneous integration of MEMS actuators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-level heterogeneous integration of MEMS actuators
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level integration of shape memory alloy (SMA) and electrostatic actuators to functionalize MEMS devices. The integration methods are based on heterogeneous integration, which is the integration of different materials and technologies. Background information about the actuators and the integration method is provided.

SMA microactuators offer the highest work density of all MEMS actuators, however, they are not yet a standard MEMS material, partially due to the lack of proper wafer-level integration methods. This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level heterogeneous integration of bulk SMA sheets and wires with silicon microstructures. First concepts and experiments are presented for integrating SMA actuators with knife gate microvalves, which are introduced in this thesis. These microvalves feature a gate moving out-of-plane to regulate a gas flow and first measurements indicate outstanding pneumatic performance in relation to the consumed silicon footprint area. This part of the work also includes a novel technique for the footprint and thickness independent selective release of Au-Si eutectically bonded microstructures based on localized electrochemical etching.

Electrostatic actuators are presented to functionalize MEMS crossbar switches, which are intended for the automated reconfiguration of copper-wire telecommunication networks and must allow to interconnect a number of input lines to a number of output lines in any combination desired. Following the concepts of heterogeneous integration, the device is divided into two parts which are fabricated separately and then assembled. One part contains an array of double-pole single-throw S-shaped actuator MEMS switches. The other part contains a signal line routing network which is interconnected by the switches after assembly of the two parts. The assembly is based on patterned adhesive wafer bonding and results in wafer-level encapsulation of the switch array. During operation, the switches in these arrays must be individually addressable. Instead of controlling each element with individual control lines, this thesis investigates a row/column addressing scheme to individually pull in or pull out single electrostatic actuators in the array with maximum operational reliability, determined by the statistical parameters of the pull-in and pull-out characteristics of the actuators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. xii, 78 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2010:002
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, silicon, wafer-level, integration, heterogeneous integration, transfer integration, packaging, assembly, wafer bonding, adhesive bonding, eutectic bonding, release etching, electrochemical etching, microvalves, microactuator, Shape Memory Alloy, SMA, NITINOL, TiNi, NiTi, cold-state reset, bias spring, stress layers, crossbar switch, routing, switch, switch array, electrostatic actuator, S-shaped actuator, zipper actuator, addressing, transfer stamping, blue tape
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11833 (URN)978-91-7415-493-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-05, Lecture Hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100729Available from: 2010-01-12 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2010-07-29Bibliographically approved
2. Assembly of microsystems for optical and fluidic applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assembly of microsystems for optical and fluidic applications
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses assembly issues encountered in optical and fluidic microsystem applications.

In optics, the first subject concerns the active alignment of components in optical fibersystems. A solution for reducing the cost of optical component assembly while retaining submicron accuracy is to integrate the alignment mechanism onto the optical substrate. A polymer V-shaped actuator is presented that can carry the weight of the large components - on a micromechanical scale - and that can generate movement with six degrees of freedom.

The second subject in optics is the CMOS-compatible fabrication of monocrystalline silicon micromirror arrays that are intended to serve as CMOS-controlled high-quality spatial light modulators in maskless microlithography systems. A wafer-level assembly method is presented that is based on adhesive wafer bonding whereby a monocrystalline layer is transferred onto a substrate wafer in a CMOS-compatible process without needing bond alignment.

In fluidics, a hybrid assembly method is introduced that combines two separately micromachined structures to create hotwire anemometers that protrude from a surface with minimum interference with the air flow. The assembled sensor enables one to make accurate time-resolved measurements of the wall shear stress, a quantity that has previously been hard to measure with high time resolution. Also in the field of hotwire anemometers, a method using a hotwire anemometer array is presented for measuring the mass flow, temperature and composition of a gas in a duct.

In biochemistry, a bio-analysis chip is presented. Single nucleotide polymorphism scoring is performed using dynamic allele-specific hybridization (DASH). Using monolayers of beads, multiplexing based on single-bead analysis is achieved at heating rates more than 20 times faster than conventional DASH provides.

Space and material e±ciency in packaging are the focus of the other two projects in fluidics. The first introduces an assembly based on layering conductive adhesives for the fabrication of miniature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fuel cells made with this low-cost approach perform among the best of their type to date. The second project concerns a new cross-flow microvalve concept. Intended as a step towards the mass production of large-flow I/P converters, the silicon footprint area is minimized by an out-of-plane moving gate and in-plane, half-open pneumatic channels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. xiv, 70 p.
Series
Trita-ILA, ISSN 0281-2878 ; 0501
Keyword
Applied mechanics, microsystem technology, micromachining, assembly, active alignment, BCB, Teknisk mekanik
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-120 (URN)91-7283-958-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-02-11, Kollegiesalen, Valhallavägen 79, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101019Available from: 2005-02-09 Created: 2005-02-09 Last updated: 2010-10-19Bibliographically approved

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Haasl, Sjoerdvan der Wijngaart, WouterStemme, Göran

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