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Single-chip MEMS 5x5 and 20x20 double-pole single-throw switch arrays for automating telecommunication networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9552-4234
2008 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 18, no 1, 015014- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch arrays with 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw (DPST) switches embedded and packaged on a single chip, which are intended for automating main distribution frames in copper-wire telecommunication networks. Whenever a customer requests a change in his telecommunication services, the copper-wire network has to be reconfigured which is currently done manually by a costly physical re-routing of the connections in the main distribution frames. To reduce the costs, new methods for automating the network reconfiguration are sought after by the network providers. The presented devices comprise 5 × 5 or 20 × 20 double switches, which allow us to interconnect any of the 5 or 20 input lines to any of the 5 or 20 output lines. The switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the switch contact on a flexible membrane, moving between a top and a bottom electrode. The devices are fabricated in two parts which are designed to be assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding, resulting in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The on-chip routing network consists of thick metal lines for low resistance and is embedded in bencocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layers. The packaged 5 × 5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7 × 6.4 mm2 and the 20 × 20 arrays are 14 × 10 mm2 large. The switch actuation voltages for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array were measured to be 21.2 V/15.3 V for the 5 × 5 array and 93.2 V/37.3 V for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The total signal line resistances vary depending on the switch position within the array between 0.13 Ω and 0.56 Ω for the 5 × 5 array and between 0.08 Ω to 2.33 Ω for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The average resistance of the switch contacts was determined to be 0.22 Ω with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 18, no 1, 015014- p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11831DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/18/1/015014ISI: 000252965900016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-41849094441OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11831DiVA: diva2:284101
Note
QC 20100729Available from: 2010-01-04 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wafer-level heterogeneous integration of MEMS actuators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-level heterogeneous integration of MEMS actuators
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level integration of shape memory alloy (SMA) and electrostatic actuators to functionalize MEMS devices. The integration methods are based on heterogeneous integration, which is the integration of different materials and technologies. Background information about the actuators and the integration method is provided.

SMA microactuators offer the highest work density of all MEMS actuators, however, they are not yet a standard MEMS material, partially due to the lack of proper wafer-level integration methods. This thesis presents methods for the wafer-level heterogeneous integration of bulk SMA sheets and wires with silicon microstructures. First concepts and experiments are presented for integrating SMA actuators with knife gate microvalves, which are introduced in this thesis. These microvalves feature a gate moving out-of-plane to regulate a gas flow and first measurements indicate outstanding pneumatic performance in relation to the consumed silicon footprint area. This part of the work also includes a novel technique for the footprint and thickness independent selective release of Au-Si eutectically bonded microstructures based on localized electrochemical etching.

Electrostatic actuators are presented to functionalize MEMS crossbar switches, which are intended for the automated reconfiguration of copper-wire telecommunication networks and must allow to interconnect a number of input lines to a number of output lines in any combination desired. Following the concepts of heterogeneous integration, the device is divided into two parts which are fabricated separately and then assembled. One part contains an array of double-pole single-throw S-shaped actuator MEMS switches. The other part contains a signal line routing network which is interconnected by the switches after assembly of the two parts. The assembly is based on patterned adhesive wafer bonding and results in wafer-level encapsulation of the switch array. During operation, the switches in these arrays must be individually addressable. Instead of controlling each element with individual control lines, this thesis investigates a row/column addressing scheme to individually pull in or pull out single electrostatic actuators in the array with maximum operational reliability, determined by the statistical parameters of the pull-in and pull-out characteristics of the actuators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. xii, 78 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2010:002
Keyword
Microelectromechanical systems, MEMS, silicon, wafer-level, integration, heterogeneous integration, transfer integration, packaging, assembly, wafer bonding, adhesive bonding, eutectic bonding, release etching, electrochemical etching, microvalves, microactuator, Shape Memory Alloy, SMA, NITINOL, TiNi, NiTi, cold-state reset, bias spring, stress layers, crossbar switch, routing, switch, switch array, electrostatic actuator, S-shaped actuator, zipper actuator, addressing, transfer stamping, blue tape
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11833 (URN)978-91-7415-493-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-05, Lecture Hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100729Available from: 2010-01-12 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2010-07-29Bibliographically approved

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