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Comparative study on different Anammox systems
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology. (Water, Sewage and Waste technology)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The legal requirements for wastewater discharge into environment, especially to zones exposed to eutrophication, lately became stricter. Nowadays wastewater treatment plants have to manage with the new rules and assure better biogenic elements’ removal, in comparison with the past. There are some well-known methods of diminishing concentrations of these compounds, but they are ineffective in case of nitrogen-rich streams, as landfill leachate or reject waters from dewatering of digested sludge. This wastewater disturbs conventional processes of nitrification-denitrification and raise necessity of building bigger tanks. The partial nitritation followed by Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) process appear to be an excellent alternative for traditional nitrification/denitrification. The process was investigated in three different reactors – Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC). The process was evaluated in two options: as a two-stage process performed in two separate reactors and as a one-stage process. The two-step process, in spite of very low nitrogen removal rates, assured very high nitrogen removal efficiency, exceeding even 90% in case of the MBBR. However, obtained results revealed that the one-step system is a better option than the two-step system, no matter, what kind of nitrogen-rich stream is taken into consideration. Moreover, the one-step process was much less complicated in operation. Performed research confirmed a hypothesis, that the oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid and the nitrite production rate are the limiting factors for the Anammox reaction in a single reactor. In order to make a quick and simple determination of bacteria activity, the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests were shown as an excellent tool for evaluation of the current bacteria activity reliably, and without a need of using expensive reagents. It was also shown, that partial nitritation/Anammox process, could be successfully applied at temperatures much lower than the optimum value. Performed Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses, proved that the Anammox bacteria were mainly responsible for the nitrogen removal process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , xii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1053
Keyword [en]
Anammox; biofilm system; landfill leachate; nitrogen removal; reject water; removal rates
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11933ISBN: 978-91-7415-501-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11933DiVA: diva2:290602
Public defence
2010-02-12, V3, top floor, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2010-01-27 Created: 2010-01-27 Last updated: 2010-07-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Study on evaluation of kinetic parameters for Anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study on evaluation of kinetic parameters for Anammox process
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2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the IWA Specialized Conference Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes and Recycle Streams, 2005, 379-388 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13996 (URN)
Conference
IWA Specialized Conference Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes and Recycle Streams, Krakow Poland, 19- 21 September 2005
Note
QC 20100706Available from: 2010-07-06 Created: 2010-07-06 Last updated: 2012-02-14Bibliographically approved
2. Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.
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2006 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 54, no 8, 209-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traditional nitrification/denitrification is not suitable for nitrogen removal when wastewater contains high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and low concentrations of biodegradable carbon. Recently, a deammonification process was developed and proposed as a new technology for treatment of such streams. This process relies on a stable interaction between aerobic bacteria Nitrosomonas, that accomplish partial nitritation and anaerobic bacteria Planctomycetales, which conduct the Anammox reaction. Simultaneous performance of these two processes can lead to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in one single reactor. The experiments where nitrogen was removed in one reactor were performed at a technical-scale moving-bed pilot plant, filled with Kaldnes rings and supplied with supernatant after dewatering of digested sludge. It was found that a nitrogen removal rate obtained at the pilot plant was 1.9 g m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant run, a series of batch tests were carried out under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Within the batch tests, where the pilot plant's conditions were simulated, removal rates reached up to 3g N m(-2) d(-1). Moreover, the batch tests with inhibition of Nitrosomonas showed that only the Anammox bacteria (not anoxic removal by Nitrosomonas) are responsible for nitrogen removal.

Keyword
Anammox; CANON; deammonification; digested supernatant; nitrogen removal
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7380 (URN)10.2166/wst.2006.816 (DOI)000242677200025 ()2-s2.0-33845288661 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707. Conference: 5th World Water Congress of the International-Water-Association. Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA. SEP 10-14, 2006Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2011-09-29Bibliographically approved
3. A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in the moving-bed biofilm reactor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in the moving-bed biofilm reactor
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2007 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 55, no 8-9, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of bacterial cultures to create biofilm brings a possibility to enhance biological 0 0 wastewater treatment efficiency. Moreover, the ability of Anammox and Nitrosomonas species to grow within the same biofilm layer enabled a one-stage system for nitrogen removal to be designed. Such a system, with Kaldnes rings as carriers for biofilm growth, was tested in a technical pilot plant scale (2.1 m(3)) at the Himmerfjarden Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in the Stockholm region. The system was directly supplied with supernatant originating from dewatering of digested sludge containing high ammonium concentrations. Nearly 1-year of operational data showed that during the partial nitritation/Anammox process, alkalinity was utilised parallel to ammonium removal. The process resulted in a small pH drop, and to its relationship with conductivity was found. The nitrogen removal rate for the whole period oscillated around 1.5g N m(-2) d(-1) with a maximum value equal to 1.9 g N m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant experiment a series of batch tests were run to investigate the influence on removal rates of different dissolved oxygen 4, conditions and addition of nitrite. The highest nitrogen removal rate (5.2 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in batch tests was obtained when the Anammox process was stimulated by the addition of nitrite. In the simultaneous partial nitritation and Anammox process, the partial nitritation was the rate-limiting step.

Keyword
Anammox; biofilm; digester supernatant; nitrogen removal rate; partial nitritation
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7381 (URN)10.2166/wst.2007.237 (DOI)000246652900004 ()2-s2.0-34249695868 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Dissolved oxygen as a factor influencing nitrogen removal rates in a one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissolved oxygen as a factor influencing nitrogen removal rates in a one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox process
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the IWA Biofilm Technologies Conference, 8 – 10 January 2008, Singapore, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13997 (URN)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2010-07-07 Created: 2010-07-07 Last updated: 2010-07-07Bibliographically approved
5. Activity assessment and kinetic parameter estimation in single stage partial nitritation/Anammox
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activity assessment and kinetic parameter estimation in single stage partial nitritation/Anammox
2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13998 (URN)
Note
QS 20120315Available from: 2010-07-07 Created: 2010-07-07 Last updated: 2012-03-15Bibliographically approved
6. Biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate by deammonification assisted by heterotrophic denitrification in a rotating biological contactor (RBC)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate by deammonification assisted by heterotrophic denitrification in a rotating biological contactor (RBC)
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2007 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 55, no 8-9, 35-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to negative environmental effects of nitrogen discharge to recipients and increasingly W stringent effluent standards, effective nitrogen removal is necessity. Biological methods are the simplest in and cheapest way to treat wastewater; however, it may become an extremely expensive option when high influent nitrogen concentrations are measured and there is a lack of biodegradable organic carbon. Therefore, there is a great need to find new solutions and improve existing technologies. The deammonification is an excellent example of such a new process that requires considerably low CA amounts of organic carbon and oxygen in comparison to conventional nitrification/denitrification. The main objective of presented research was to investigate an Anammox process accompanied with autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in one rotating biological contactor (RBC). During the research period, it was possible to carry out the Anammox process in low temperature below 20 degrees C. Additionally, it was found that the process is insensitive to high nitrite concentration in the reactor, up to 100 g NO2-N m(-3), resulting only in a temporary decrease in removal rates. Furthermore, analysis of data indicated that the Stover-Kincannon model can be used for the description of ammonium and nitrite removal processes.

Keyword
Anammox; biofilm; deammonification; denitrification; leachate; nitrogen removal; RBC
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11944 (URN)10.2166/wst.2007.239 (DOI)000246652900006 ()
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2010-01-27 Created: 2010-01-27 Last updated: 2010-12-03Bibliographically approved
7. A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) for treating landfill leachate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) for treating landfill leachate
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(English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

One of the major aspects associated with landfilling of solid wastes is related to the discharge of leachate into environment. Leachates with high ammonium nitrogen content are generally difficult to effective treat in conventional biological treatment processes. Therefore, it brings a requirement of developing new processes and technologies. Additionally, treatment procedures must consider small flow rates of leachate. The Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) is a good example of technology for treatment such wastewaters, because of its excellent shock and toxic loading capabilities, simple process control and low energy requirements. The main objective of the presented research was to investigate a simultaneous partial nitritation/Anammox process in the rotating biological contactor. For this purpose, the lab-scale reactor was fed with real landfill leachate from two municipal landfill sites in Gliwice and Zabrze (Poland). The reactor was highly loaded up to 7 g N m-2d-1 and it was possible to obtain the maximum inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 6.2 g N m-2d-1. Achieved results proved the possibility of efficient inorganic nitrogen removal by means of partial nitritation/ Anammox process in the temperature around 20°C.

Keyword
Anammox; biofilm; deammonification; landfill leachate; nitrogen removal; RBC
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11942 (URN)
Note
Uppdaterad från manuskript 20100707 QC 20100707Available from: 2010-01-27 Created: 2010-01-27 Last updated: 2010-07-21Bibliographically approved

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  • Other locale
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Output format
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