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Spatial delineation of soil erosion vulnerability in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
2009 (English)In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 23, no 26, 3738-3750 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this study was to identify the most vulnerable areas to soil erosion in the Lake Tana Basin, Blue Nile, Ethiopia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically based distributed hydrological model, and a Geographic Information System based decision support system that uses multi-criteria evaluation (NICE). The SWAT model was used to estimate the sediment yield within each sub-basin and identify the most sediment contributing areas in the basin. Using the NICE analysis, an attempt was made to combine a set of factors (land use, soil, slope and river layers) to make a decision according to the stated objective. On the basis of simulated SWAT, sediment yields greater than 30 tons/ha for each of the sub-basin area, 18.4% of the watershed was determined to be high erosion potential area. The NICE results indicated that 12-30.5% of the watershed is high erosion potential area. Both approaches show comparable watershed area with high soil erosion susceptibility. The output of this research can aid policy and decision makers in determining the soil erosion 'hot spots' and the relevant soil and water conservation measures. (C) Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 23, no 26, 3738-3750 p.
Keyword [en]
soil erosion, Lake Tana, SWAT, MCE, GIS, hydrologic modeling, NONPOINT-SOURCE POLLUTION, WATER ASSESSMENT-TOOL, SWAT MODEL, MULTICRITERIA EVALUATION, CALIBRATION, PARAMETERS, HYDROLOGY, TRANSPORT, CRITERIA
National Category
Water Engineering Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12020DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7476ISI: 000273438100011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-76149099237OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12020DiVA: diva2:294401
Note
QC20100719Available from: 2010-02-17 Created: 2010-02-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modelling Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Processes in Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Processes in Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lake Tana Basin is of significant importance to Ethiopia concerning water resources aspects and the ecological balance of the area. The growing high demands in utilizing the high potentials of water resource of the Lake to its maximal limit, pictures a disturbing future for the Lake. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of topography, soil, land use and climatic varia-bility on the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes of the Lake Tana Basin. The physically based SWAT model was successfully calibrated and validated for flow and sediment yield. Se-quential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2), parameter solution (ParaSol) and generalized likelihood un-certainty estimation (GLUE) calibration and uncertainty analysis methods were compared and used for the set-up of the SWAT model. There is a good agreement between the measured and simulated flows and sediment yields. SWAT and GIS based decision support system that uses multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) was used to identify the most vulnerable areas to soil erosion in the basin. The results indicated that 12 to 30.5% of the watershed is high erosion potential. Pro-jected changes in precipitation and temperature in the basin for two seasons were analyzed using outputs from fifteen global climate models (GCMs). A historical-modification procedure was used to downscale large scale outputs from GCM models to watershed-scale climate data. The results showed significant changes in streamflow and other hydrological parameters in the period between 2045-2100. SWAT was combined with a three dimensional hydrodynamic model, GEMSS to investigate the flow structure, stratification, the flushing time, lake water balance and finally the Lake‘s water level response to planned water removal. We have found an alarming and dramatic fall of the water levels in Lake Tana as response to the planned water withdrawal. The combination of the two models can be used as a decision support tools to better understand and manage land and water resources in watersheds and waterbodies. The study showed that the Lake Tana Basin may experience a negative change in water balance in the forthcoming decades due to climate change as well as over abstraction of water resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. viii, 66 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1057
Keyword
Lake Tana, Climate Change, SWAT, Hydrological Modeling, Hydrodynamic, GEMSS, MCE, Streamflow, Sediment yield
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12024 (URN)978-91-7415-558-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-03-05, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100720Available from: 2010-02-17 Created: 2010-02-17 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved

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