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Effects of ethanol content and temperature on the permeation of fuel through polyamide-12-based pipes
Volvo Car Corporation, Polymer Centre.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
2010 (English)In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 29, no 5, 603-608 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new test method has been developed which enables the fuel permeation properties of polyamide-12 (PA-12) - based pipes to be investigated. Fuel lines were exposed to circulating fuel with equal volume contents of toluene, isooctane and 0, 25 or 85 vol.% ethanol for up to 6 months at 60-110 degrees C. The pipes were either of a single PA12-layer or a multi-layer type, the latter having a poly(vinylidene fluoride) barrier layer between two PA12 sections. With a Thwing-Albert cup attached to the fuel line, it was possible to expose a pipe-section to surrounding air running in a separate pipe loop at a controlled flow-rate. Gas/vapour samples were collected from this loop using a syringe and, subsequently, analysed with a flame ionization detector. It was observed in the case of multi-layer pipes that the presence of ethanol increased the permeability (average values) of the "total" fuel as well as of the individual hydrocarbons. In addition, the 60 degrees C fuel permeability (85 vol.% ethanol) increased after a high temperature (110 degrees C peak) cycle, whereas the ethanol-free fuel flux seemed to decrease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
elsevier , 2010. Vol. 29, no 5, 603-608 p.
Keyword [en]
Polyamide-12, ageing, fuel lines, permeation, hydrocarbons, ethanol
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12033DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2010.03.008ISI: 000279522000011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77955304821OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12033DiVA: diva2:299739
Note
QC 20100722 Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20110203).Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2010-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Ageing of Fuel Lines Based on Polyamide-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Ageing of Fuel Lines Based on Polyamide-12
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, the use of bio-fuels for cars is increasing. There is a wide range of biofuelsavailable world wide, in Sweden ethanol containing fuels are favoured.For car manufacturers there is a need to be able to predict short and long termproperties of fuel lines subjected to ethanol containing fuels to ensure properlong term behaviour. The presented method for ageing in “close to real”environment involved circulating fuel inside the tubes and air on the outside attwo temperatures, 50°C and 110°C. The exposure time was extensive in the50°C case, almost 3 years, and the ageing at 110°C was conducted for 100days. Polyamide-12 was chosen as pipe material, which is also used in realparts. Tensile testing was used to assess the mechanical changes caused byageing. Long ageing times and high ethanol levels resulted in low extensibility.In the case of fuel with 25 vol.% ethanol at 110°C (100 days) the samplesshowed no macroscopic yielding. Even at 50°C a time induced loss ofextensibility was observed (80 vol.% ethanol). However, at ethanol levels of 0and 22 vol.% the extensibility was not reduced even after the 3 years of ageing.The changes at short times were interpreted as being due to loss of plasticizer.The changes at long ageing times were thoroughly investigated. The change incrystallinity, pipe swelling, leaching and the decrease in extensibility were allgreatest in the pipes subjected to ethanol. As expected, the molar massdecreased as the ethanol level increased and a good correlation between molarmass and extensibility was observed. A method for determining the fuelpermeation properties was developed. Fuel lines were subjected to circulatingfuels in the same manner as in the ageing tests and the surrounding air wasanalysed for fuel components with a flame ionisation detector. Higher level ofethanol increased the individual fuel component fluxes as well as the total fluxand also the temperature effect on the flux was significant. Finally it should bementioned, that ethanol was not always an unwanted ingredient; adding a smallamount of ethanol to the ethanol-free fuel prevented premature pipe failure at110°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 71 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2010:6
Keyword
pipes, ethanol
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12050 (URN)978-91-7415-552-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-03-19, F3, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100722Available from: 2010-02-26 Created: 2010-02-26 Last updated: 2010-07-22Bibliographically approved

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