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Environmental systems analysis of four on-site wastewater treatment options
Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 10, 1153-1161 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four on-site wastewater treatment systems with an end-of-pipe approach were compared for their relative environmental impacts and use of natural resources with the help of an environmental systemsanalysis (ESA) approach. The treatment techniques compared were infiltration, chemical precipitation, and P removal using the reactive filter media Filtra P and Filtralite® P. The chemical precipitation system attained the most favourable results from an environmental and resource conservation perspective.The reactive filter alternatives showed very high capacity for reduction of eutrophying substances. Both Filtralite® P and Filtra P, however, produce large environmental impacts in energy use related areas. The infiltration system attained low impact scores in all impact categories save eutrophication potential. However, the alternative possessed no nutrient recycling potential and its actual phosphorus removal capacity is highly uncertain, which makes it difficult to perform reliable comparisons with other alternatives. The reactive filter systems should be advantageous especially in very eutrophication-sensitive areas, where excess emissions of eutrophying substances under no circumstances can be tolerated. However, to limit the negative environmental impact in other areas, a topic for future research must be to improve the general performance of the reactive filter systems so that their lifespan can be increased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2008. Vol. 52, no 10, 1153-1161 p.
Keyword [en]
Chemical precipitation, Environmental systems analysis, Infiltration, Life cycle assessment, On-site wastewater treatment, Small scale wastewater treatment, Reactive filter materials
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12042DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.06.004ISI: 000259888000005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-51049117915OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12042DiVA: diva2:300226
Note

QC 20100914

Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For many surface waters, phosphorus (P) leaching is a serious problem that should be minimized to prevent eutrophication. In Sweden there is a demand for physical and technical development of high-performance P removal techniques to reduce phosphorus leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems to the Baltic Sea. However, although these systems are designed to reduce eutrophication there are also other environmental impacts to be considered when implementing them in on-site systems; energy use and global warming potential are two examples. This study has investigated several bed filter materials (reactive media and natural soils) for their total environmental impact (in commercial applications) as well as for the predominating chemical phosphorus removal mechanisms. The use of life cycle assessment revealed that several reactive bed filters are relatively energy-consuming due to the material manufacturing process. Characterization of phosphorus compounds in used reactive media provided evidence for calcium phosphate precipitation as the predominating P removal mechanism in alkaline filter materials. However, in soil treatment systems with noncalcareous soils, batch experiments and extractions suggested that aluminium compounds were important for P removal. According to mass balance calculations that compared accumulated P with the estimated P load in a soil treatment system, the long term P removal capacity was very low; only 6.4 % of the applied phosphorus had been removed during 16 years of operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 2010. 20 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2049
Keyword
On-site wastewater treatment, Eutrophication, Environmental impact assessment, Phosphorus removal mechanisms, Soil infiltration, Reactive bed filters
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12048 (URN)978-91-7415-578-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-03-19, V3, KTH, Teknikringen 72, third floor, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20110413

Available from: 2010-02-26 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Sustainable phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aquatic eutrophication is a serious environmental problem that occurs all over the world. To protect surface waters (in particular the Baltic Sea), the regulatory pressure on onsite wastewater treatment (OWT) systems have increased in Sweden. Stringent requirements have led to uncertainties regarding the capability of conventional treatment techniques (soil treatment systems (STS)) to remove phosphorus (P), but they have also stimulated the development and introduction of enhanced P treatment techniques. In this thesis the accumulation and mobility of P as well as the chemical P removal mechanisms were studied in soils and reactive filter media. This knowledge was then used in environmental systems analysis. A model based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was developed to evaluate the overall environmental performance of conventional and enhanced P treatment systems under various local conditions. The P accumulation in the studied STS varied (320-870 g m-3) and the accumulated P was rather mobile in some soils. Phosphorus compounds were identified in alkaline reactive filter media (calcium phosphates predominated) by means of X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). In sandy soils from STS aluminium was found to be a key element for P removal, as evidenced by a strong relationship between oxalate-extractable P and Al. The LCA studies indicated that enhanced P treatment systems may be beneficial from an eutrophication and P recycling perspective but causes increased impacts in terms of global warming and acidification. Despite the drawbacks, enhanced P treatment techniques should be considered suitable substitutes to surface water discharge STS under most conditions. This is because the latter systems have such a strong eutrophication impact. On the other hand, under appropriate conditions, STS with groundwater discharge may be advantageous. These systems generally caused low environmental impacts except for the dispersion of P resources. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xii, 34 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1070
Keyword
Onsite wastewater treatment, Soil treatment system, Phosphorus, Removal mechanisms, Environmental impacts, Life cycle assessment
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121049 (URN)978-91-7501-730-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130419

Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved

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