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XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
University Raleigh, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina, USA.
Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK.
2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 17, 6515-6521 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopyis a useful technique for characterization of chemical speciesof phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To developand evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selectionof promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples.Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60 % of totalP in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35 % of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2009. Vol. 43, no 17, 6515-6521 p.
Keyword [en]
AMORPHOUS CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE, PHOSPHORUS SPECIATION, SPECTROSCOPY; REMOVAL, HYDROXYAPATITE, MECHANISMS, SOILS, SLAG, PRECIPITATION, FILTER MATERIAL
National Category
Soil Science Analytical Chemistry Water Engineering Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12045DOI: 10.1021/es901084zISI: 000269258000017Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-69549090592OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12045DiVA: diva2:300242
Note

QC 20101005

Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For many surface waters, phosphorus (P) leaching is a serious problem that should be minimized to prevent eutrophication. In Sweden there is a demand for physical and technical development of high-performance P removal techniques to reduce phosphorus leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems to the Baltic Sea. However, although these systems are designed to reduce eutrophication there are also other environmental impacts to be considered when implementing them in on-site systems; energy use and global warming potential are two examples. This study has investigated several bed filter materials (reactive media and natural soils) for their total environmental impact (in commercial applications) as well as for the predominating chemical phosphorus removal mechanisms. The use of life cycle assessment revealed that several reactive bed filters are relatively energy-consuming due to the material manufacturing process. Characterization of phosphorus compounds in used reactive media provided evidence for calcium phosphate precipitation as the predominating P removal mechanism in alkaline filter materials. However, in soil treatment systems with noncalcareous soils, batch experiments and extractions suggested that aluminium compounds were important for P removal. According to mass balance calculations that compared accumulated P with the estimated P load in a soil treatment system, the long term P removal capacity was very low; only 6.4 % of the applied phosphorus had been removed during 16 years of operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 2010. 20 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2049
Keyword
On-site wastewater treatment, Eutrophication, Environmental impact assessment, Phosphorus removal mechanisms, Soil infiltration, Reactive bed filters
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Water Engineering Soil Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12048 (URN)978-91-7415-578-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-03-19, V3, KTH, Teknikringen 72, third floor, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20110413

Available from: 2010-02-26 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Sustainable phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aquatic eutrophication is a serious environmental problem that occurs all over the world. To protect surface waters (in particular the Baltic Sea), the regulatory pressure on onsite wastewater treatment (OWT) systems have increased in Sweden. Stringent requirements have led to uncertainties regarding the capability of conventional treatment techniques (soil treatment systems (STS)) to remove phosphorus (P), but they have also stimulated the development and introduction of enhanced P treatment techniques. In this thesis the accumulation and mobility of P as well as the chemical P removal mechanisms were studied in soils and reactive filter media. This knowledge was then used in environmental systems analysis. A model based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was developed to evaluate the overall environmental performance of conventional and enhanced P treatment systems under various local conditions. The P accumulation in the studied STS varied (320-870 g m-3) and the accumulated P was rather mobile in some soils. Phosphorus compounds were identified in alkaline reactive filter media (calcium phosphates predominated) by means of X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). In sandy soils from STS aluminium was found to be a key element for P removal, as evidenced by a strong relationship between oxalate-extractable P and Al. The LCA studies indicated that enhanced P treatment systems may be beneficial from an eutrophication and P recycling perspective but causes increased impacts in terms of global warming and acidification. Despite the drawbacks, enhanced P treatment techniques should be considered suitable substitutes to surface water discharge STS under most conditions. This is because the latter systems have such a strong eutrophication impact. On the other hand, under appropriate conditions, STS with groundwater discharge may be advantageous. These systems generally caused low environmental impacts except for the dispersion of P resources. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. xii, 34 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1070
Keyword
Onsite wastewater treatment, Soil treatment system, Phosphorus, Removal mechanisms, Environmental impacts, Life cycle assessment
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121049 (URN)978-91-7501-730-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-13, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130419

Available from: 2013-04-19 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2013-04-19Bibliographically approved

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