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Software Solutions for Nuclear Imaging Systems in Cardiology, Small Animal Research and Education
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5919-3554
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The sensitivity for observing physiological processes makes nuclear imaging an important tool in medical diagnostics. Different types of nuclear imaging modalities, with emphasis on the software components and image reconstructions, are presented in this thesis:  the Cardiotom for myocardial heart studies at the Karolinska University Hospital, the small animal Positron Emission Tomograph (PET) scanners for research and the SPECT, PET, spiral CT and Cardiotom demonstrators for the Royal Institute of Technology medical imaging laboratory.

A modular and unified software platform has been developed for data representation, acquisition, visualization, reconstruction and presentation of the programs of the imaging devices mentioned above. The high performance 3D ML-EM and OS-EM iterative image reconstruction methods are implemented both on Cardiotom and miniPET scanners.

As a result, the in-slice resolution of the first two prototypes of the Cardiotom today is the same as the formerly used filtered back-projection, however the in-depth resolution is considerably increased. Another improvement due to the new software is the shorter time that is required for data acquisition and image reconstruction. The new electronics with the newly developed software ensure images for medical diagnosis within 10 minutes from the start ofthe examination. The first system from the standardized production of the Cardiotom cameras is in the test phase.

The performance parameters (sensitivity, spatial and energy resolution, coincidence time resolution) of the full ring mini PET camera are comparable to other small animal PETsystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , 75 p.
Series
Trita-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2010:1
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12069OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12069DiVA: diva2:300907
Public defence
2010-03-19, KTH-Flemingsberg, Sal 3-221, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, Stockholm, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100721Available from: 2010-03-02 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2010-07-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Unified software platform for nuclear medical image representation visualization and reconstruction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unified software platform for nuclear medical image representation visualization and reconstruction
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(English)In: Journal of InstrumentsArticle in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
medical imaging, image reconstruction, SPECT, Gamma Camera
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12058 (URN)
Note

QS 20120328

Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Validation of an iterative reconstruction for a mobile tomographic gamma camera system - The Cardiotom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of an iterative reconstruction for a mobile tomographic gamma camera system - The Cardiotom
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2007 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 580, no 2, 1097-1100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Cardiotom is a mobile gamma camera that uses ectomography, an alternative method of acquisition to SPECT. It is designed for early diagnosis of myocardial and cerebral infarctions in the emergency room. Ectomography is a limited view angle method, using a rotating slant hole collimator and a stationary camera head, to acquire projection images. The aim of this work was to validate a fully 3D ML-EM iterative reconstruction algorithm for the Cardiotom. Validation measurements were performed with Tc-99m point sources. Resolution in the reconstructed volume was determined in X, Y. and Z directions from the point spread functions. The results were compared with the values for the formerly used filtered back projection (FBP). The new reconstruction algorithm provides greatly improved depth resolution with respect to the FBP method previously implemented on the Cardiotom. Furthermore, for clinical examinations, images can be available for interpretation within 15 min of the injection, therefore, valuable information can be obtained without delaying treatment of the patient. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword
medical imaging, image reconstruction, SPECT, gamma camera
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12059 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2007.06.069 (DOI)000250128000056 ()2-s2.0-34548511146 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100720Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Gated tomographic imaging in ectomography using a dynamic heart phantom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gated tomographic imaging in ectomography using a dynamic heart phantom
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2007 (English)In: Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2007. NSS '07. IEEE, IEEE , 2007, 3414-3417 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A new computer controlled dynamic heart phantom and the connection of an ECG unit to a tomographic gamma camera system, developed for ectomographic imaging, is presented. The phantom is used for validation of the camera. Measurements were performed to test the phantom as well as to study the feasibility of gated imaging in ectomography. The camera is intended for early diagnosis of myocardial and cerebral infarctions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2007
Series
IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, ISSN 1082-3654 ; 5
Keyword
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12060 (URN)10.1109/NSSMIC.2007.4436863 (DOI)000257380402177 ()2-s2.0-48349132721 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0922-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS-MIC; Honolulu, HI; 27 October 2007 through 3 November 2007
Note

QC 20120906

Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2012-09-06Bibliographically approved
4. Data acquisition and image reconstruction systems from the MiniPET scanners to the CARDIOTOM camera
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data acquisition and image reconstruction systems from the MiniPET scanners to the CARDIOTOM camera
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2007 (English)In: Nuclear Physics Methods And Accelerators In Biology And Medicine / [ed] Granja, C; Leroy, C; Stekl, I, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2007, Vol. 958, 282-283 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nuclear imaging devices play an important role in medical diagnosis as well as drug research. The first and second generation data acquisition systems and the image reconstruction library developed provide a unified hardware and software platform for the miniPET-I, miniPET-II small animal PET scanners and for the CARDIOTOM(TM).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2007
Series
AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X ; 958
Keyword
medical imaging, image reconstruction, data acquisition, small animal PET, gamma camera
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12063 (URN)000252138700073 ()2-s2.0-71749121389 (Scopus ID)978-0-7354-0472-4 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20120906

Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2012-09-06Bibliographically approved
5. Ethernet based distributed data acquistion system for small animal PET
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethernet based distributed data acquistion system for small animal PET
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 53, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the design of a small animal PET scanner being developed at our institutes. The existing setup is the first version of the miniPET machine consisting of four detector modules. Each detector module consists of an 8times8 LSO scintillator crystal block, a position sensitive photomultiplier, a digitizer and digital signal processing board and an Ethernet interface board. There is no hardware coincidence detection implemented in the system, coincidence is determined based on a time stamp attached to every event by a digital CFD algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in the digital signal processing board and it generates a time stamp with a coincidence resolution of 2 to 3 ns. The data acquisition System is based on Ethernet network and is highly scalable in size and performance

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6426 (URN)10.1109/RTC.2005.1547447 (DOI)2-s2.0-33751420238 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100720Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Full 3-D cluster-based iterative image reconstruction tool for a small animal PET camera
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full 3-D cluster-based iterative image reconstruction tool for a small animal PET camera
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2007 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 571, no 1-2, 219-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iterative reconstruction methods are commonly used to obtain images with high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio in nuclear imaging. The aim of this work was to develop a scalable, fast, cluster based, fully 3-D iterative image reconstruction package for our small animal PET camera, the miniPET. The reconstruction package is developed to determine the 3-D radioactivity distribution from list mode type of data sets and it can also simulate noise-free projections of digital phantoms. We separated the system matrix generation and the fully 3-D iterative reconstruction process. As the detector geometry is fixed for a given camera, the system matrix describing this geometry is calculated only once and used for every image reconstruction, making the process much faster. The Poisson and the random noise sensitivity of the ML-EM iterative algorithm were studied for our small animal PET system with the help of the simulation and reconstruction tool. The reconstruction tool has also been tested with data collected by the miniPET from a line and a cylinder shaped phantom and also a rat.

Keyword
Medical imaging, Image reconstruction, Small animal PET
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6427 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.067 (DOI)000244599100052 ()2-s2.0-33846356997 (Scopus ID)
Note
Accepted 2006 Published 2007 QC20100720Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Experimental scanner setup from miniPET II detector module
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental scanner setup from miniPET II detector module
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2009 (English)In: 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science SYmposium Conference Record, 2009, 3121-3124 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The PET technique is widely used in human clinical studies and recent developments of image resolution has made it suitable for small animal research. The second generation of our PET scanner consists of 12 detector modules and has a field of view large enough to image mice and rats. Parameters of the incoming data are extracted by Digital Signal Processing in the detector modules and a System-on-Module is used to transmit the data through an Ethernet network for storage and reconstruction. The experimental scanner setup described in this paper was constructed in order to investigate the applicability of the developed detector modules in a full ring small animal PET camera. The preliminary results of the system are also presented.

Series
IEEE NUCL SCI CONF REC, ISSN 1082-3654
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12066 (URN)000268656001250 ()978-1-4244-2714-7 (ISBN)
Note
QC20100710Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2010-07-20Bibliographically approved
8. A SPECT demonstrator - revival of a gamma camera
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A SPECT demonstrator - revival of a gamma camera
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2006 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, 274-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keyword
medical imaging, gamma camera, SPECT
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12067 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2006.01.089 (DOI)000238764700061 ()2-s2.0-33745064793 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100721. Conference: 7th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors. Grenoble, FRANCE. JUL 04-07, 2005Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
9. LSO based dual slice helical CT and PET demonstrators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LSO based dual slice helical CT and PET demonstrators
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2011 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 633, S300-S302 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two demonstrators, a spiralCT and a miniPET, have been designed and constructed for educational purposes. Computed tomographs (CTs) and positron emission tomographs (PETs) are some of the most commonly used structural and functional imaging devices in medicine, respectively. There is a need for transparent demonstrators where the principles of the different modalities and their functions are presented. The aim of the developments of these systems was to present the major building blocks of CT and PET for undergraduate students. Photon detection in both systems is based on small pixelised scintillation crystals with position sensitive PMT readout. Similar analogue and digital data processing based on FPGA technique is applied for the demonstrators and common image reconstruction and presentation software components are used.

Keyword
PET, CT, nuclear imaging, Education
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12068 (URN)10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.195 (DOI)000292782400089 ()2-s2.0-79959859585 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100721. Updated from accepted to published. 11th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors.Available from: 2010-03-01 Created: 2010-03-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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