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Molecular Interactions Studied by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Even though electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) experiments may provide unique chemical information and have been performed for three decades, the technique is still rarely applied, mainly because several experimental sources of artifacts have to be controlled to achieve accurate results. In this thesis, new experimental setups and protocols for accurate and precise eNMR experiments are presented. These include a novel eNMR sample cell, a radiofrequency filter and methods to suppress bulk flow effects. These developments improved the signal-to-noise ratio by roughly an order of magnitude compared to the U-tube setup previously used for eNMR. Convection-compensated pulse sequences in combination with a phase correction method were found to efficiently suppress bulk flow effects in the experiments and greatly increase experimental accuracy.

These experimental setups and protocols were applied to probe association of ions and molecules in solution. It is particularly illustrated that the combination of diffusion and eNMR has great potential to provide quantitative results on ionic and molecular association in a variety of systems.

The extent to which ionic surfactants associate with uncharged cyclodextrin probed by eNMR yielded very similar results to those obtained by diffusion NMR experiments. Complexation of a large set of small mono- and polyvalent metal cations to poly(ethylene oxide) was quantified by estimating the effective charge of the polymer through combined diffusion and eNMR information. Significant association was found for cations that have a surface charge density below a critical value.

Ion pairing between tetramethylammonium cations and a series of anions in several solvents was also probed by diffusion NMR and eNMR experiments. For the monovalent anions in ethanol and ethanol-water mixture a dependence on ionic size was demonstrated. In water, dimethylsulfoxide, and methanol no such trend and very little pairing was observed. In acetonitrile, a different pattern was seen that did not correlate well with any single ionic parameter.

An experimental cell and procedures for electrokinetic studies of solvated proton-conducting polymer materials is also presented. Electro-osmotic flow and diffusion were studied for each molecular component in water-methanol mixtures that swell Nafion membranes.

Abstract [sv]

Elektroforetisk NMR (eNMR) är en experimentell metod som funnits i tre decennier och som kan ge unik kemisk information. Ändå används den sällan då flera experimentella artefakter måste korrigeras för, om man ska få korrekta resultat. I denna avhandling presenteras nya experimentella uppställningar och protokoll ämnade att uppnå korrekta och noggranna resultat. Dessa inkluderar en ny mätcell, ett radiofrekvensfilter och metoder för att minimera effekten av samtidiga bulkflöden i provlösningen. Sammantaget uppnås ungefär en storleksordning högre signal-brus-förhållande jämfört med den U-rörsuppställning som tidigare använts. Konvektions-kompenserande pulssekvenser i kombination med en faskorrektionsteknik minskade också bulkflödeseffekter effektivt, vilket ökade resultatens noggrannhet högst avsevärt.

De experimentella uppställningarna och protokollen användes här för att mäta association av joner och molekyler i lösning. Mätningarna visar att kombinationen diffusions- och eNMR har en stor potential att kvantitativt kunna bestämma associationgraden i många olika typer av kemiska system.

Associationsgraden mellan joniska tensider och cyklodextriner undersöktes både med eNMR och diffusions-NMR, och resultaten var mycket lika. Komplex-bildningen mellan en serie enkel- och flerladdade metalljoner och poly-(etylenoxid) kvantifierades genom att uppskatta polymerens effektiva laddning från kombinerad diffusions- och eNMR. Betydande komplexbildning hittades för katjoner med ytladdningstäthet under ett kritiskt värde.

Jonparbildning mellan tetrametylammoniumjoner och en serie av anjoner i flera olika lösningsmedel undersöktes också med diffusions- och eNMR. För de monovalenta anjonerna i etanol och etanol-vatten-blandning påvisades ett samband med jonstorleken. I vatten, dimetylsulfoxid och metanol var däremot jonparbildningen låg och inget liknande samband hittades. I acetonitril observerades ett annat mönster, som inte korrelerade bra med någon av anjonernas normala joniska karakteristika.

Slutligen presenteras en mätcell och procedurer för elektrokinetiska studier i de solvatiserade protonledande polymermaterial som bland annat används i bränsleceller. Elektroosmotiskt flöde och diffusion uppmättes för varje molekylär komponent i Nafion-membran solvatiserade av vatten-metanol-blandningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , viii, 59 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2010:7
Keyword [en]
Physical chemistry, NMR, electrophoretic NMR, Ion pairing, complexation, association, diffusion, pulsed field gradient, Nafion
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12186ISBN: 978-91-7415-580-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12186DiVA: diva2:305722
Public defence
2010-04-15, hörsal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-24 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A PGSE diffusion and electrophoretic NMR study of Cs+ and Na+ dynamics in aqueous crown ether systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A PGSE diffusion and electrophoretic NMR study of Cs+ and Na+ dynamics in aqueous crown ether systems
2007 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, ISSN 0749-1581, E-ISSN 1097-458X, Vol. 45, no 2, 152-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multinuclear pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR diffusion and linewidth measurements were used to probe binding and transport in aqueous Na+-15-crown-5, Na+-18-crown-6, Cs+-15-crown-5 and Cs+-18-crown-6 systems. Since direct PGSE observation of many alkali cations is precluded by either low inherent sensitivity or rapid relaxation (or both), the feasibility of proton-detected electrophoretic NMR (ENMR) measurements to complement PGSE data was investigated. ENMR measurements were performed on aqueous Cs+-, Li+-, Na+-, K+-, and Rb+-18-crown-6 systems. The data analysis is based on a two-site binding model and its corresponding association constants. Cs+ was found to bind considerably more tightly to 18-crown-6 (K = 8 m(-1)) than to 15-crown-5 (K similar to 2 m(-1)), whereas Na+ had almost equal affinity (K similar to 4.5 m(-1)) for 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. The difficulties encountered in analysing the NMR parameters, methodological limitations and the implied need for more complicated binding models are discussed.

Keyword
binding, crown ether, diffusion, electrophoretic NMR, PGSE NMR, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, STUDYING TRANSLATIONAL DIFFUSION, SELF-DIFFUSION, ASSOCIATION CONSTANTS, ALKALINE-EARTH, FIELD GRADIENT, COMPLEX-FORMATION, CRYPTAND 222, METAL IONS, SODIUM-ION
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12187 (URN)10.1002/mrc.1936 (DOI)000243695200008 ()2-s2.0-33846648786 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-03-24 Created: 2010-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Sensitive and robust electrophoretic NMR: Instrumentation and experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitive and robust electrophoretic NMR: Instrumentation and experiments
2008 (English)In: Journal of magnetic resonance, ISSN 1090-7807, E-ISSN 1096-0856, Vol. 192, no 1, 69-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although simple as a concept, electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) has so far failed to find wider application. Problems encountered are mainly due to disturbing and partly irreproducible convection-like bulk flow effects from both electro-osmosis and thermal convection. Additionally, bubble formation at the electrodes and rf noise pickup has constrained the typical sample geometry to U-tube-like arrangements with a small filling factor and a low resulting NMR sensitivity. Furthermore, the sign of the electrophoretic mobility cancels out in U-tube geometries. We present here a new electrophoretic sample cell based on a vertically placed conventional NMR sample tube with bubble-suppressing palladium metal as electrode material. A suitable radiofrequency filter design prevents noise pickup by the NMR sample coil from the high-voltage leads which extend into the sensitive sample volume. Hence, the obtained signal-to-noise ratio of this cell is one order of magnitude higher than that of our previous U-tube cells. Permitted by the retention of the sign of the displacement-related signal phase in the new cell design, an experimental approach is described where bulk flow effects by electro-osmosis and/or thermal convection are compensated through parallel monitoring of a reference signal from a non-charged species in the sample. This approach, together with a CPMG-like pulse train scheme provides a superior first-order cancellation of non-electrophoretic bulk flow effects.

Keyword
electrophoretic NMR, eNMR, method, convection, electro-osmosis, suppression, electrophoresis, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, CYLINDRICAL FLUID LAYER, SURFACTANT SYSTEMS, THERMOCONVECTIVE INSTABILITY, TRANSFERENCE NUMBERS, EFFECTIVE CHARGE, MOBILITY, CAPILLARY, POLYMER
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12203 (URN)10.1016/j.jmr.2008.02.001 (DOI)000255764700008 ()
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Molecular complexation and binding studied by electrophoretic NMR spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular complexation and binding studied by electrophoretic NMR spectroscopy
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 24, 7550-+ p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrophoretic mobilities obtained on a molecularly selective manner by electrophoretic NMR can be used to proved a quantitative characterization of the composition and stoichiometry of molecular complexes. This is demonstrated in complexes formed by uncharge cyclodextrins which attain an electrophoretic mobility upon inclusion of charged surfactants.

Keyword
NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, STUDYING TRANSLATIONAL DIFFUSION, INCLUSION, INSIGHTS, TOOL
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12202 (URN)10.1021/ja8023324 (DOI)000256671400017 ()2-s2.0-45249124664 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Ion Pairing in Ethanol/Water Solution Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion Pairing in Ethanol/Water Solution Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
2009 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 131, no 39, 13900- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate that a combination of electrophoretic NMR and diffusion NMR experiments can measure the average charge carried by ions in solution. This average charge is used as a quantitative indicator of ion pairing. Our results show that there is a Hofmeister relation in the ion pairing between monovalent anions and the tetramethylammonium cation in 95% ethanol/water solution. The ion pairing of the divalent sulfate ion was larger than that shown by any of the monovalent anions.

Keyword
HOFMEISTER SERIES, AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS, ASSOCIATION, BINDING, ANIONS, SPECTROSCOPY, PROTEINS, MACROMOLECULES, ELECTROLYTES, SOLVATION
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12201 (URN)10.1021/ja904959y (DOI)000270433900008 ()2-s2.0-70349627254 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Electrokinetic transport of water and methanol in Nafion membranes as observed by NMR spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrokinetic transport of water and methanol in Nafion membranes as observed by NMR spectroscopy
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 55, no 10, 3542-3549 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]
Electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) and pulsed-field-gradient NMR (PFG-NMR) methods were used to study transport processes in situ and in a chemically resolved manner in the electrolyte of an experimental direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) setup, constituted of several layers of Nation 117. The measurements were conducted at room temperature for membranes fully swollen by methanol-water mixtures over a wide concentration interval. The experimental setup and the experimental protocol for the eNMR experiments are discussed in detail. The magnitude of the water and methanol self-diffusion coefficients show a good agreement with previously published data while the ratio of the two self-diffusion coefficients may indicate an imperfect mixing of the two solvent molecules. On the molecular level, the drag of water and methanol molecules by protons is roughly of the same magnitude, with the drag of methanol molecules increasing with increasing methanol content. The electro-osmotic drag defined on mass-flow basis increased for methanol from a low level with increasing methanol concentration while that of water remained roughly constant. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keyword
Electrophoretic NMR eNMR, Direct methanol fuel cell DMFC, Self-diffusion, Electro-osmosis, Drag coefficient, PROTON-EXCHANGE-MEMBRANES, POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, PEM-FUEL-CELLS, ELECTROOSMOTIC DRAG, ELECTROPHORETIC NMR, TRANSFERENCE NUMBERS, DIFFUSION, PERMEABILITY, COEFFICIENTS
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14038 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2010.01.064 (DOI)000276792000015 ()2-s2.0-77949270817 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-07-09 Created: 2010-07-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Binding of Monovalent and Multivalent Metal Cations to Polyethylene Oxide in Methanol Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Binding of Monovalent and Multivalent Metal Cations to Polyethylene Oxide in Methanol Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14040 (URN)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-07-09 Created: 2010-07-09 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
7. Ion Pairing in Various Solvents Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion Pairing in Various Solvents Probed by Electrophoretic and Diffusion NMR
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14042 (URN)
Note
QC20100709Available from: 2010-07-09 Created: 2010-07-09 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved

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