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Integrated Optical Slot-Waveguide Ring Resonator Sensor Arrays for Lab-on-Chip Applications
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9008-8402
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis treats the development of an integrated optical sensor array. The sensors are slot-waveguide ring resonators, integrated with on-chip surface grating couplers and light splitters, for alignment tolerant, real-time, refractive index sensing, and label-free biosensing. The work includes: the design of components and system layouts, the development of fabrication methods, the fabrication of sensor chips, the characterization of the chips, and the development of physical system models for accurate extraction of resonance wavelengths in measured spectra.

The main scientific achievements include: The evaluation of a novel type of nano-structured optical waveguide for biochemical sensing. The realization of an array of such slot-waveguide sensors, integrated with microfluidic sample handling, for multiplex assays. The first study of the thermal behavior of slot-waveguide sensors and the discovery of unique temperature compensation capabilities.

From an application perspective, the use of alignment tolerant surface gratings to couple light into the optical chip enables quick replacement of cartridges in the read-out instrument. Furthermore, the fabrication sequence avoids polishing of individual chips, and thus ensures that the cost benefits of silicon batch micro-fabrication can be leveraged in mass production.

The high sensitivity of the slot waveguide resonators, combined with on-chip referencing and physical modeling, yields low limits of detection. The obtained volume refractive index detection limit of 5 × 10−6 refractive index units (RIU), and the surface mass density detection limit of 0.9 pg/mm2, shows that performance comparable to that of commercial non-integrated surface plasmon resonance sensors, made from bulk optical components, canbe achieved in a compact cartridge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , p. xvii, 98
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
Keywords [en]
biosensor, label-free biosensing, ring resonator, optical waveguide, lab-on-a-chip
National Category
Control Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12214ISBN: 978-91-7415-594-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12214DiVA, id: diva2:305953
Public defence
2010-04-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SABIO
Note
Qc20100715Available from: 2010-04-06 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2010-07-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array
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2010 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 3226-3237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an experimental study of an integrated slot-waveguide refractive index sensor array fabricated in silicon nitride on silica. We study the temperature dependence of the slot-waveguide ring resonator sensors and find that they show a low temperature dependence of -16.6 pm/K, while at the same time a large refractive index sensitivity of 240 nm per refractive index unit. Furthermore, by using on-chip temperature referencing, a differential temperature sensitivity of only 0.3 pm/K is obtained, without individual sensor calibration. This low value indicates good sensor-to-sensor repeatability, thus enabling use in highly parallel chemical assays. We demonstrate refractive index measurements during temperature drift and show a detection limit of 8.8 x 10(-6) refractive index units in a 7 K temperature operating window, without external temperature control. Finally, we suggest the possibility of athermal slot-waveguide sensor design.

Keywords
SILICON, DENSITY, DEVICES
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12207 (URN)10.1364/OE.18.003226 (DOI)000274795700002 ()2-s2.0-77149146784 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SABIO
Note
QC 20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips
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2010 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the design, fabrication, and characterisation of an array of optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensors, integrated with microfluidic sample handling in a compact cartridge, for multiplexed real-time label-free biosensing. Multiplexing not only enables high throughput, but also provides reference channels for drift compensation and control experiments. Our use of alignment tolerant surface gratings to couple light into the optical chip enables quick replacement of cartridges in the read-out instrument. Furthermore, our novel use of a dual surface-energy adhesive film to bond a hard plastic shell directly to the PDMS microfluidic network allows for fast and leak-tight assembly of compact cartridges with tightly spaced fluidic interconnects. The high sensitivity of the slot-waveguide resonators, combined with on-chip referencing and physical modelling, yields a volume refractive index detection limit of 5 x 10(-6) refractive index units (RIUs) and a surface mass density detection limit of 0.9 pg mm(-2), to our knowledge the best reported values for integrated planar ring resonators.

Keywords
MICRORING RESONATOR, SILICON, INTERFACE, BIOSENSOR, SYSTEMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12208 (URN)10.1039/b914183a (DOI)000273744700003 ()2-s2.0-75149156504 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100715

Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides
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2008 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 708-710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate label-free molecule detection by using an integrated biosensor based on a Si3N4/SiO2 Slot-waveguide microring resonator. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA molecular binding events on the sensor surface are monitored through the measurement of resonant wavelength shifts with varying biomolecule concentrations. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.2 nm/(ng/mm(2)) for the detection of anti-BSA and BSA, respectively. The estimated detection limits are 28 and 16 pg/mm(2) for anti-BSA and BSA, respectively, limited by wavelength resolution.

Keywords
MICRORING RESONATORS; SENSOR
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12209 (URN)10.1364/OL.33.000708 (DOI)000255227000025 ()2-s2.0-42449116503 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor
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2007 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 32, no 21, p. 3080-3082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguidemicroring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 mu m. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n = 1. 33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2 X 10(-4) RIU.

Keywords
REFRACTIVE-INDEX; CONFINING LIGHT; RESONATOR
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12210 (URN)10.1364/OL.32.003080 (DOI)000251350100010 ()2-s2.0-38049131098 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SABIO
Note
QC20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Vertical multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators in silicon nitride
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertical multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators in silicon nitride
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2008 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 22, p. 17237-17242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes the first demonstration of ring resonators based on vertical multiple-slot silicon nitride waveguides. The design, fabrication and measurement of multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators with several coupling distances and ring radii (70 mu m, 90 mu m and 110 mu m) have been carried out for TE and TM polarizations at the wavelength of 1.3 mu m. Quality factors of 6,100 and 16,000 have been achieved for TE and TM polarization, respectively.

Keywords
OPTICAL POWER; BIREFRINGENCE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12211 (URN)10.1364/OE.16.017237 (DOI)000260865900011 ()2-s2.0-55349096822 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers
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2008 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High efficiency surface grating couplers for silicon nitride waveguides have been designed, fabricated, and characterized. Coupling efficiencies exceeding 60 % are reported at a wavelength of 1.31 mu m, as well as angular and wavelength -3 dB tolerances of 4 and 50 nm, respectively. When the wavelength is increased from 1310 nm to 1450 nm the coupling efficiency progressively decreases but remains above 20 % at 1450 nm. The influence of the duty ratio of the grating has also been investigated: maximum coupling efficiency was obtained at 50 % duty ratio.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12212 (URN)10.1364/OE.16.000328 (DOI)000252234800039 ()18521164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-38049178733 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform
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2007 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 6846-6856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the first demonstration of guiding light in vertical slot-waveguides on silicon nitride/silicon oxide material system. Integrated ring resonators and Fabry-Perot cavities have been fabricated and characterized in order to determine optical features of the slot-waveguides. Group index behavior evidences guiding and confinement in the low-index slot region at O-band (1260-1370nm) telecommunication wavelengths. Propagation losses of < 20 dB/cm have been measured for the transverse-electric mode of the slot-waveguides.

Keywords
CONFINING LIGHT; RESONATOR; LIMIT
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12213 (URN)10.1364/OE.15.006846 (DOI)000247240300037 ()2-s2.0-85010158753 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100715Available from: 2010-03-25 Created: 2010-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Gylfason, Kristinn Björgvin

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