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Standing Contact Fatigue Testing of a Ductile Material: Surface and Sub-Surface Cracks
KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6896-1834
KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
2000 (English)In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 23, no 3, 229-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During standing contact fatigue testing of case hardened steel plates, four different fatigue crack types are found: ring/cone; lateral; radial; and median cracks. Fatigue results are presented as load versus cycle number, with endurance limits and initiation laws for the ring/cone and lateral cracks. The behaviour of the radial surface strain outside the contact is altered by the presence of cracks. In particular this makes in situ crack detection possible for the lateral crack.

The ductility of the tested material is found to be important for fatigue crack initiation. Numerical elastoplastic computations are used to derive the stress cycles responsible for each crack type. Stress cycles at different locations and in different directions are compared in order to explain why a particular crack type initiates. It is noted that cracks are produced normal to principal stresses of sufficient range, which are tensile sometime during the load cycle. Implications for spalling are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 23, no 3, 229-240 p.
Keyword [en]
contact fatigue, surface crack, subsurface crack, elastoplastic indentation, endurance
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12307DOI: 10.1046/j.1460-2695.2000.00269.xISI: 000087106800005OAI: diva2:309549
QC 20100407Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2011-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An experimental and numerical study on contact fatigue initiation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental and numerical study on contact fatigue initiation
1998 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 1998. 4 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-792 (URN)992-623039-3 (ISBN)
QC 20100408 NR 20140804Available from: 2000-09-26 Created: 2000-09-26 Last updated: 2010-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. A study on contact fatigue mechanisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on contact fatigue mechanisms
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Surfaces subjected to rolling and sliding contacts maysuffer from contact fatigue. This thesisdeals with solidmechanic aspects of contact fatigue including the descriptionand verificationof explaining mechanisms. The new mechanism forsurface initiated contact fatigue is basedon tensile surfacestresses from local asperity contacts. It is also realised thatsub-surfaceinitiated contact fatigue is the result of tensileresidual stresses that emanate from plasticdeformation belowthe surface. These mechanisms clearly show that contact fatiguecracksfollow the same rules as ordinary fatigue cracks inhardened steel.

The thesis contains four papers that treat a new testprocedure named Standing ContactFatigue (SCF). The results ofthe test procedure have played an important role inthedevelopment and verification of the mechanisms for surfaceand sub-surface contact fatigue.

The first part of the research work was experimental. Inthis part the SCF test properties wasdecided, crack resultsconfirmed and crack detection methods developed. Herecomparativestudies were performed using some differentmaterials and mechanical properties. It wasverified that SCFcould detect differences in contact fatigue resistance.

Next a finite element model of the SCF test was evaluatedthrough the general-purposeprogram MARC. The model includedgraded material properties that originate from heattreatment.The residual surface deformation and surface compliance wereverified againstexperimental results. Crack initiation wasinvestigated in two ways. Firstly, the principalstresses atcritical locations were computed and plotted in a Haighdiagram. The diagramshowed that the cracks initiate in adirection perpendicular to the principal stress with thelargeststress range provided that the principal stress is tensilesometime during the load cycle.

Secondly, some high cycle multiaxial fatigue criteria,including the Haigh principal stresscriterion, was evaluatedagainst the SCF crack initiation results. The surface cracklocation waspredicted by including statistical effects using aweakest-link criterion and a three-parameterWeibulldistribution.

The SCF crack propagation was investigated by numericalevaluation ofJ1 andJ2integrals. The crack initiation and propagationphases were separated with a threshold criterionand a directioncriterion. It was found that during crack propagation bothsurface andsub-surface contact fatigue cracks follow thedirection with minimum mode II loading.

Key words: contact fatigue mechanism; spall; spalling;surface crack; sub-surface crack;elasto-plastic indentation;contact compliance measurement; mixed-mode fatigue;fatiguecrack growth;J-integral; multiaxial fatigue; weakest-link.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2000. 27 p.
Trita-HFL, ISSN 1104-6813 ; 0271
contact fatigue mechanism, spall, spalling, surface crakc, sub-surface crack, elesto-plastic indentation, contact compliance measurement
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3028 (URN)993-389332-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2000-11-10, 00:00 (English)
QC 20100407 NR 20140805Available from: 2000-10-26 Created: 2000-10-26 Last updated: 2010-04-28Bibliographically approved

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