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Enterprise Systems Modifiability Analysis: An Enterprise Architecture Modeling Approach for Decision Making
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3089-3885
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contemporary enterprises depend to great extent on software systems. During the past decades the number of systems has been constantly increasing and these systems have become more integrated with one another. This has lead to a growing complexity in managing software systems and their environment. At the same time business environments today need to progress and change rapidly to keep up with evolving markets. As the business processes change, the systems need to be modified in order to continue supporting the processes.

The complexity increase and growing demand for rapid change makes the management of enterprise systems a very important issue. In order to achieve effective and efficient management, it is essential to be able to analyze the system modifiability (i.e. estimate the future change cost). This is addressed in the thesis by employing architectural models. The contribution of this thesis is a method for software system modifiability analysis using enterprise architecture models. The contribution includes an enterprise architecture analysis formalism, a modifiability metamodel (i.e. a modeling language), and a method for creating metamodels. The proposed approach allows IT-decision makers to model and analyze change projects. By doing so, high-quality decision support regarding change project costs is received.

This thesis is a composite thesis consisting of five papers and an introduction. Paper A evaluatesa number of analysis formalisms and proposes extended influence diagrams to be employed for enterprise architecture analysis. Paper B presents the first version of the modifiability metamodel. InPaper C, a method for creating enterprise architecture metamodels is proposed. This method aims to be general, i.e. can be employed for other IT-related quality analyses such as interoperability, security, and availability. The paper does however use modifiability as a running case. The second version of the modifiability metamodel for change project cost estimation is fully described in Paper D. Finally, Paper E validates the proposed method and metamodel by surveying 110 experts and studying 21 change projects at four large Nordic companies. The validation indicates that the method and metamodel are useful, contain the right set of elements and provide good estimation capabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , x, 29 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2010:14
Keyword [en]
Enterprise Architecture, Software System Modifiability, Decision Making, Metamodeling, Enterprise Architecture Analysis, Software Change Cost Estimation
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12341OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12341DiVA: diva2:309807
Public defence
2010-04-20, Room F3, Lindstedtsv 2, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100716Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2010-07-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Enterprise architecture analysis with extended influence diagrams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enterprise architecture analysis with extended influence diagrams
2007 (English)In: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 9, no 2-3, 163-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The discipline of enterprise architecture advocates the use of models to support decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide such support, enterprise architecture models should be amenable to analyses of various properties, as e.g. the level of enterprise information security. This paper proposes the use of a formal language to support such analysis. Such a language needs to be able to represent causal relations between, and definitions of, various concepts as well as uncertainty with respect to both concepts and relations. To support decision making properly, the language must also allow the representation of goals and decision alternatives. This paper evaluates a number of languages with respect to these requirements, and selects influence diagrams for further consideration. The influence diagrams are then extended to fully satisfy the requirements. The syntax and semantics of the extended influence diagrams are detailed in the paper, and their use is demonstrated in an example.

Keyword
enterprise architecture models, formal language, influence diagrams, DECISION-ANALYSIS
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12328 (URN)10.1007/s10796-007-9030-y (DOI)000247193400004 ()2-s2.0-34250193990 (Scopus ID)
Note
onference: 10th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference. Hong Kong, PEOPLES R CHINA. OCT 16-20, 2006 Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Analyzing System Maintainability using Enterprise Architecture Models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing System Maintainability using Enterprise Architecture Models
2007 (English)In: Journal of Enterprise Architecture, ISSN 2166-6768, Vol. 3, no 4, 33-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fast and continuously changing business environment demands flexible softwaresystems easy to modify and maintain. Due to the extent of interconnection betweensystems and the internal quality of each system many IT decision-makers find it difficultpredicting the effort of making changes to their systems. To aid IT-decision makers inmaking better decisions regarding what modifications to make to their systems, thisarticle proposes extended influence diagrams and enterprise architecture models formaintainability analysis. A framework for assessing maintainability using enterprisearchitecture models is presented and the approach is illustrated by a fictional exampledecision situation.

Keyword
enterprise architecture analysis, extended influence diagrams, system maintainability, system modeling
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12330 (URN)
Note

QC20100716

Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2017-04-10Bibliographically approved
3. A method for creating entreprise architecture metamodels: applied to systems modifiability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for creating entreprise architecture metamodels: applied to systems modifiability
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Science and Applications, ISSN 0972-9038, E-ISSN 0972-9038, Vol. 6, no 5, 89-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enterprise architecture models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and specifically to perform various kinds of analysis. It is generally understood that such modeling encompasses general scientific issues, but the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems and their environment are not equally well acknowledged. Even more so, creating a good metamodel for enterprise software systems analysis is an important but challenging task. The present paper describes a method for creating metamodels for such analysis. The enterprise architecture models are formalized using probabilistic relational models, which enables the combination of regular entityrelationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis. The proposed method for creating metamodels is general, however this paper presents the method by creating a metamodel for systems modifiability, i.e. the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The method and the method outcome, i.e. the metamodel, is validated based on survey and workshop data and the applicability of the metamodel is illustrated with an instantiated architectural model based on a software change project at a large Nordic software and hardware vendor.

Keyword
Enterprise architecture, Metamodeling, Probabilistic relational models, Software modifiability
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12334 (URN)2-s2.0-77953128879 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100716

Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - A metamodel for software change cost estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - A metamodel for software change cost estimation
2010 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 18, no 4, 437-468 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enterprise architecture models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and specifically to perform various kinds of analysis. The present paper proposes a metamodel for enterprise systems modifiability analysis, i.e. assessing the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The enterprise architecture metamodel is formalized using probabilistic relational models, which enables the combination of regular entity-relationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis. The content of the presented metamodel is validated based on survey and workshop data and its estimation capability is tested with data from 21 software change projects. To illustrate the applicability of the metamodel an instantiated architectural model based on a software change project conducted at a large Nordic transportation company is detailed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2010
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12335 (URN)10.1007/s11219-010-9100-0 (DOI)000281254700002 ()2-s2.0-77956062351 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
5. Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - Models, analysis, and validation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - Models, analysis, and validation
2010 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 8, 1387-1403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enterprise architecture (EA) models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and to perform various kinds of analysis. This paper presents instantiated architectural models based on a metamodel for enterprise systems modifiability analysis, i.e. for assessing the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The instantiated architectural models detailed are based on 21 software change projects conducted at four large Nordic companies. Probabilistic relational models (PRMs) are used for formalizing the EA analysis approach. PRMs enable the combination of regular entity-relationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis under uncertainty. The modifiability metamodel employed in the analysis is validated with survey and workshop data (in total 110 experts were surveyed) and with the data collected in the 21 software change projects. Validation indicates that the modifiability metamodel contains the appropriate set of elements. It also indicates that the metamodel produces estimates within a 75% accuracy in 87% of the time and has a mean accuracy of 88% (when considering projects of 2000 man-hours or more).

Keyword
Enterprise architecture, Software change cost estimation, Software modifiability, Metamodel, Probabilistic relational models
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12339 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2010.02.019 (DOI)000279365400011 ()2-s2.0-77953139934 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Workshop on Performance Modelling, Evaluation and Optimization of Ubiquitous Computing and Networked Systems/IEEE-IPDPS, Rome, Italy, Date: May 23-29, 2009
Note
QC 20110214Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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