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A source efficient ADS for minor actinides burning
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Sekimoto Laboratory, Japan.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6082-8913
2010 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 37, no 4, 540-545 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Taking advantage of the good neutron economy of nitride fuel, a compact accelerator-driven system (ADS) for burning of minor actinide fuels has been designed, based on the fuel assembly geometry developed for the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) within the EUROTRANS project. The small core size of the new design permits reduction of the size of the spallation target region, which enhances proton source efficiency by about 80% compared to the reference oxide version of EFIT. Additionally, adoption of the austenitic steel 15/15Ti as clad material allows to safely reduce the fuel pin pitch, which leads to an increase of fuel volume fraction and therefore makes the neutron energy spectrum faster, consequently increasing minor actinides fission probabilities. Our calculations show that one can dramatically increase neutron source efficiency up to 0.95 without a significant loss of neutron source intensity, i.e. having high proton source efficiency. Consequently, the accelerator current required for operation of the ADS with a fission power of 201 MWth and a burn-up of 27 GW d/t per year (365 EFPD) is reduced by 67%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 37, no 4, 540-545 p.
Keyword [en]
accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, fuel, neutronics, design
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12369DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2009.12.025ISI: 000276823700012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77649181124OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12369DiVA: diva2:310064
Note
QC 20110324Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Accelerator-driven systems: source efficiency and reacitvity determination
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerator-driven systems: source efficiency and reacitvity determination
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) are being investigated and designed for transmutation of the long-lived nuclear waste. Application of ADS allows to safely transmute large fractions of minor actinides (MA) per reactor core, while the fraction in critical reactors is limited to a few percent due to the safety constraints. Additional imposed costs of ADS introduction into the nuclear fuel cycle can be decreased by improving their effciency, particularly the external source effciency.

Design of the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with transuranium (TRU) oxide fuel has been recently developed in the frame of  the EUROTRANS project. In this thesis it is shown that the neutron and proton source effciency of EFIT can be significantly improved by application of advanced TRU nitride fuel. Thanks to the good neutron economy of the nitride fuel, the EFIT core size can be reduced, which permits reducing the size of the spallation target. This provides a twice higher proton source effciency and therefore lowers the demand for the proton accelerator current. Additionally, the nitride version of EFIT features two times lower coolant void worth improving the core safety.

The pulsed neutron source (PNS) methods for ADS reactivity control have been studied experimentally at the YALINA facility in Minsk (Belarus) and shown good agreement with numerical simulation. The PNS methods will be most probably used for calibration of online reactivity monitoring system in future ADS.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010. xii, 51 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2010:10
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12371 (URN)978-91-7415-577-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-04-12, Sal FA32, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110412Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2011-04-12Bibliographically approved
2. Transmutation of Am in sodium fast reactors and accelerator driven systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmutation of Am in sodium fast reactors and accelerator driven systems
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the feasibility to use sodium cooled fast reactors loaded with MOX, metallic and nitride fuels for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by performing transient analysis for cases with different americium contents in fuels, using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. It was then demonstrated that there is no solid limit for the Am introduction into oxide, metallic and nitride fuels that were loaded into sodium fast reactors. Instead, higher Am contents could be permitted if specific levels of power penalty were accepted.

Transient analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with higher neutron source efficiency than the reference EFIT-400 design, was also performed. Based on simulation results, the suggested ADS design was proved to survive the full set of transients, preserving 130 K margin to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient.

After comparing Am transmutation performances in SFRs and the suggested ADS, it can be concluded that: 1. Nitride fuel could provide the highest Am transmutation efficiency, when loaded into SFRs; 2. One SFR loaded with nitride fuel is sufficient to transmute Am inventory produced by more than 15 commercial LWRs within the same time period, which is three times higher than the supporting ratio reported for the suggested ADS; 3. The total fraction of ADS power in the power park is half of cases for critical reactors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. xiii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2012:05
Keyword
Sodium cooled fast reactor, accelerator driven system, americium, transmutation, transient analysis
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-72427 (URN)978-91-7501-254-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-14, Sal FA31, Roslagstullsbacken 21, AlbaNova, Stockholm, Sweden, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20120201Available from: 2012-02-01 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2012-02-01Bibliographically approved

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