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Accelerator-driven systems: source efficiency and reacitvity determination
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) are being investigated and designed for transmutation of the long-lived nuclear waste. Application of ADS allows to safely transmute large fractions of minor actinides (MA) per reactor core, while the fraction in critical reactors is limited to a few percent due to the safety constraints. Additional imposed costs of ADS introduction into the nuclear fuel cycle can be decreased by improving their effciency, particularly the external source effciency.

Design of the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with transuranium (TRU) oxide fuel has been recently developed in the frame of  the EUROTRANS project. In this thesis it is shown that the neutron and proton source effciency of EFIT can be significantly improved by application of advanced TRU nitride fuel. Thanks to the good neutron economy of the nitride fuel, the EFIT core size can be reduced, which permits reducing the size of the spallation target. This provides a twice higher proton source effciency and therefore lowers the demand for the proton accelerator current. Additionally, the nitride version of EFIT features two times lower coolant void worth improving the core safety.

The pulsed neutron source (PNS) methods for ADS reactivity control have been studied experimentally at the YALINA facility in Minsk (Belarus) and shown good agreement with numerical simulation. The PNS methods will be most probably used for calibration of online reactivity monitoring system in future ADS.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2010. , xii, 51 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2010:10
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12371ISBN: 978-91-7415-577-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12371DiVA: diva2:310081
Presentation
2010-04-12, Sal FA32, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110412Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2011-04-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A source efficient ADS for minor actinides burning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A source efficient ADS for minor actinides burning
2010 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 37, no 4, 540-545 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Taking advantage of the good neutron economy of nitride fuel, a compact accelerator-driven system (ADS) for burning of minor actinide fuels has been designed, based on the fuel assembly geometry developed for the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) within the EUROTRANS project. The small core size of the new design permits reduction of the size of the spallation target region, which enhances proton source efficiency by about 80% compared to the reference oxide version of EFIT. Additionally, adoption of the austenitic steel 15/15Ti as clad material allows to safely reduce the fuel pin pitch, which leads to an increase of fuel volume fraction and therefore makes the neutron energy spectrum faster, consequently increasing minor actinides fission probabilities. Our calculations show that one can dramatically increase neutron source efficiency up to 0.95 without a significant loss of neutron source intensity, i.e. having high proton source efficiency. Consequently, the accelerator current required for operation of the ADS with a fission power of 201 MWth and a burn-up of 27 GW d/t per year (365 EFPD) is reduced by 67%.

Keyword
accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, fuel, neutronics, design
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12369 (URN)10.1016/j.anucene.2009.12.025 (DOI)000276823700012 ()2-s2.0-77649181124 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110324Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Pulsed neutron source measurements in the subcritical ADS experiment YALINA-Booster
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulsed neutron source measurements in the subcritical ADS experiment YALINA-Booster
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 35, no 12, 2357-2364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A subcritical zero-power source-driven coupled core, the YALINA-Booster. has been constructed for experimental investigations of neutron kinetics of source-driven systems. In this study, the reactivity of two subcritical configurations has been determined by the area ratio method. The prompt neutron decay constants have been evaluated through slope fitting of the prompt neutron decay as well as through the pulsed Rossi-alpha method. It is shown that the slope fitting method and the pulsed Rossi-alpha method give stable results whereas the area ratio method results show spatial dependence. The reasons for the spatial spread are addressed.

Keyword
REACTIVITY DETERMINATION
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12370 (URN)10.1016/j.anucene.2008.07.011 (DOI)000261729300023 ()2-s2.0-55949092840 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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