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P2P Live Video Streaming
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. (Kommunikationsnät)
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ever increasing demand for video content directed the focus of researchfrom traditional server-based schemes to peer-to-peer systems for videodelivery. In such systems, video data is delivered to the users by utilizing theresources of the users themselves, leading to a potentially scalable solution.Users connect to each other, forming a p2p overlay network on top of theInternet and exchange the video segments among themselves. The performanceof a p2p system is characterized by its capability to deliver the videocontent to all peers without errors and with the smallest possible delay. Thisconstitutes a challenge since peers dynamically join and leave the overlay andalso contribute different amounts of resources to the system.The contribution of this thesis lies in two areas. The first area is theperformance evaluation of the most prominent p2p streaming architectures.We study the streaming quality in multiple-tree-based systems. We derivemodels to evaluate the stability of a multiple tree overlay in dynamic scenariosand the efficiency of the data distribution over the multiple trees. Then, westudy the data propagation in mesh-based overlays. We develop a generalframework for the evaluation of forwarding algorithms in such overlays anduse this framework to evaluate the performance of four different algorithms.The second area of the thesis is a study of streaming in heterogeneous p2poverlays. The streaming quality depends on the aggregate resources that peerscontribute to the system: low average contribution leads to low streamingquality. Therefore, maintaining high streaming quality requires mechanismsthat either prohibit non-contributing peers or encourage contribution. In thisthesis we investigate both approaches. For the former, we derive a model tocapture the evolution of available capacity in an overlay and propose simpleadmission control mechanisms to avoid capacity drainage. For the latter, inour last work, we propose a novel incentive mechanism that maximizes thestreaming quality in an overlay by encouraging highly contributing peers tooffer more of their resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2010. , v, 30 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2010:010
Keyword [en]
p2p systems, live streaming, mesh-based systems
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12373OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12373DiVA: diva2:310089
Presentation
2010-03-22, Q21, Osquldas väg 10, KTH, Stockholm, 15:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100506Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2013-09-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the performance of multiple-tree-based peer-to-peer live streaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the performance of multiple-tree-based peer-to-peer live streaming
2007 (English)In: INFOCOM 2007, VOLS 1-5, 2007, 2556-2560 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we propose and analyze a generalized multiple-tree-based overlay architecture for peer-to-peer live streaming that employs multipath transmission and forward error correction. We give mathematical models to describe the stability properties of the overlay and evaluate the error recovery in the presence of node dynamics and packet losses. We show how the stability of the overlay improves with the proper allocation of the outgoing bandwidths of the peers among the trees without compromising its error correcting capability.

Series
IEEE INFOCOM, ISSN 0743-166X
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12513 (URN)10.1109/INFCOM.2007.320 (DOI)000249117704080 ()2-s2.0-34447333306 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1046-0 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2007) Location: Anchorage, AK Date: MAY 06-12, 2007
Note
QC 20100506 QC 20111114Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-03 Last updated: 2011-11-14Bibliographically approved
2. Streaming performance in multiple-tree-based overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streaming performance in multiple-tree-based overlays
2007 (English)In: NETWORKING 2007: Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet, Proceedings / [ed] Akyildiz, IF; Sivakumar, R; Ekici, E; DeOliveira, JC; McNair, J, 2007, 617-627 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we evaluate the data transmission performance of a generalized multiple-tree-based overlay architecture for peer-to-peer live streaming that employs multipath transmission and forward error correction. We give mathematical models to describe the error recovery in the presence of packet losses. We evaluate the data distribution performance of the overlay, its asymptotic behavior, the stability regions for the data transmission, and analyze the system behavior around the stability threshold. We argue that the composed measure of the mean and the variance of the packet possession probability can support adaptive forward error correction.

Series
Lecture Notes In Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 4479
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12692 (URN)000246476200053 ()2-s2.0-37249047462 (Scopus ID)978-3-540-72605-0 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International IFIP-TC 6 Networking Conference Location: Atlanta, GA Date: MAY 14-18, 2007
Note

QC 20100506

Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-02-22Bibliographically approved
3. On the effect of free-riders in P2P streaming systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the effect of free-riders in P2P streaming systems
2008 (English)In: 2008 4TH INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKING WORKSHOP ON QOS IN MULTISERVICE IP NETWORKS, 2008, 8-13 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peer-to-peer applications exploit the users willingness to contribute with their upload transmission capacity, achieving this way a scalable system where the available transmission capacity increases with the number of participating users. Since not all the users can offer upload capacity with high bitrate and reliability, it is of interest to see how these non-contributing users can be supported by a peer-to-peer application. In this paper we investigate how free-riders, that is, non-contributing users can be served in a peer-to-peer streaming system. We consider different policies of dealing with free-riders and discuss how performance parameters such as blocking and disconnection of free-riders are influenced by these policies, the overlay structure and system parameters as overlay size and source upload capacity. The results show that while the multiple-tree structure may affect the performance free-riders receive, the utilization of the transmission resources is still comparable to that of an optimized overlay.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12694 (URN)10.1109/ITNEWS.2008.4488122 (DOI)000257132600002 ()2-s2.0-50149093031 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-1844-2 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Telecommunication Networking Workshop on QoS in Multiservice IP Networks Venezia, ITALY, FEB 13-15, 2008
Note
QC 20100506Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
4. Delay and playout probability trade-off in mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming with delayed buffer map updates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay and playout probability trade-off in mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming with delayed buffer map updates
2009 (English)In: Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, ISSN 1936-6442, Vol. 3, no 3, 208-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In mesh-based peer-to-peer streaming systemsdata is distributed among the peers according tolocal scheduling decisions. The local decisions affecthow packets get distributed in the mesh, the probabilityof duplicates and consequently, the probabilityof timely data delivery. In this paper we proposean analytic framework that allows the evaluation ofscheduling algorithms. We consider four solutions inwhich scheduling is performed at the forwarding peer,based on the knowledge of the playout buffer contentat the neighbors. We evaluate the effectiveness of thesolutions in terms of the probability that a peer can playout a packet versus the playback delay, the sensitivityof the solutions to the accuracy of the knowledge of theneighbors’ playout buffer contents, and the scalabilityof the solutions with respect to the size of the overlay.We also show how the model can be used to evaluatethe effects of node arrivals and departures on the overlay’sperformance.

Keyword
Mesh-based streaming, Delay performance
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12695 (URN)10.1007/s12083-009-0049-3 (DOI)000284095100004 ()2-s2.0-77955176963 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100506Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
5. Server Guaranteed Cap: an incentive mechanism for maximizing streaming quality in heterogeneous overlays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Server Guaranteed Cap: an incentive mechanism for maximizing streaming quality in heterogeneous overlays
2010 (English)In: NETWORKING 2010, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Crovella M; Feeney LM; Rubenstein D; Raghavan SV, 2010, 315-326 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We address the problem of maximizing the social welfare in a peer-to-peel streaming overlay given a fixed amount of server upload capacity. We show that peers' selfish behavior leads to an equilibrium that is suboptimal in terms of social welfare, because selfish peers are interested in forming clusters and exchanging data among themselves In order to increase the social welfare we propose a novel incentive mechanism: Server Guaranteed Cap (SGC), that uses the server capacity as an incentive for high contributing peers to upload to low contributing ones We prove that SGC is individually rational anti incentive compatible We also show that under very general conditions, there exists exactly one server capacity allocation that maximizes the social welfare under SGC, hence simple gradient based method can be used to find the optimal allocation

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6091
Keyword
p2p streaming, incentive mechanisms, social welfare
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12696 (URN)000280469400025 ()2-s2.0-77953270545 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-12962-9 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International IFIP-TC 6 Networking Conference, Indian Inst Technol Madras, Chennai, INDIA, MAY 11-15, 2010
Note
QC 20110302Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved

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