Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Consequences of Reduced Brain Volume Following Impact in Prediction of Subdural Hematoma Evaluated with Numerical Techniques
KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0125-0784
KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
2002 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, Vol. 3, no 4, 303-310 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Detailed and parameterized models of the adult human head were created using the finite element method. Different sizes of the brain and the subdural space were generated, and the models were impacted toward padded surfaces in the frontal, temporal, and occipital direction. The present results show for the first time that, by reducing the brain size and thereby increasing the volume in the subdural space in the finite element model, a significant increase in relative motion was found between the skull and brain which correlated with the reduction of brain size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 3, no 4, 303-310 p.
Keyword [en]
Atrophy; Brain; Finite Element Method; Head Impact Power; Head Injury Criterion; Subdural Hematoma
National Category
Engineering and Technology Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12479DOI: 10.1080/15389580214633OAI: diva2:315215
QC 20100428Available from: 2010-04-28 Created: 2010-04-28 Last updated: 2011-02-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Finite Element Modeling of the Human Head
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite Element Modeling of the Human Head
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The main objectives of the present thesis were to define the dimension of head injuries in Sweden over a longer period and to present a Finite Element (FE) model of the human head which can be used for preventive strategies in the future. The annual incidence of head injuries in Sweden between 1987 and 2000 was defined at over 22 000, cases most of which were mild head injuries. In contrast to traffic accidents, head injuriy due to fall was the most important etiology. Of special interest was that the number of hematoma cases has increased.

A detailed and parameterized FE model of the human head was developed and used to evaluate the effects of head size, brain size and impact directions. The maximal effective stresses in the brain increased more than a fourfold, from 3.6 kPa for the smallest head size to 16.3 kPa for the largest head size using the same acceleration impulse. The size dependence of the intracranial stresses associated with injury is not predicted by the Head Injury Criterion (HIC). Simulations with various brain sizes indicated that the increased risk of Subdural Hematoma (SDH) in elderly people may to a part be explained by the reduced brain size resulting in a larger relative motion between the skull and the brain with distension of bridging veins. The consequences of this increased relative motion due to brain atrophy cannot be predicted by existing injury criteria.

From studies of the influence of impact directions to the human head, the highest shear strain in the brain stem is found for a Superior-Inferior (SI) translational impulse, and in the corpus callosum for a lateral rotational impulse when imposing acceleration pulses corresponding to the same impact power. It was concluded that HIC is unable to predict consequences of a pure rotational impulse, while the Head Impact Power (HIP) criterion needs individual scaling coefficients for the different terms to account for differences in intracranial response due to a variation in load direction. It is also suggested that a further evaluation of synergic effects of the directional terms of the HIP is necessary to include combined terms and to improve the injuryprediction.

Comparison of the model with experiments on localized motion of the brain shows that the magnitude and characteristics of the deformation are highly sensitive to the shear properties of the brain tissue. The results suggest that significantly lower values of these properties of the human brain than utilized in most 3D FE models today must be used to be able to predict the localised brain response of an impact to the human head. There is a symmetry in the motion of the superior and inferior markers for both the model and the experiments following a sagittal and a coronal impact. This can possibly be explained by the nearly incompressible properties of brain tissue. Larger relative motion between the skull and the brain is more apparent for an occipital impact than for a frontal one in both experiments and FE model. This correlates with clinical findings. Moreover, smaller relative motion between the skull and the brain is more apparent for a lateral impact than for a frontal one for both experiments and FE model. This is thought to be due to the supporting structure of the falx cerebri.

Such a parametrized and detailed 3D model of the human head has not, to the best knowledge of the author, previously been developed. This 3D model is thought to be of significant value for looking into the effects of geometrical variations of the human head.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2002. ix, 49 p.
Report. Department of Aeronautics, 2002-9
Finite element method (FEM), Human head, brain, head injury, epidemiology, statistics, simulations.
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3347 (URN)
Public defence
2002-05-29, 00:00 (English)
QC 20100428 NR 20140805Available from: 2002-05-22 Created: 2002-05-22 Last updated: 2010-04-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Kleiven, Sveinvon Holst, Hans
By organisation
Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering
In the same journal
Traffic Injury Prevention
Engineering and TechnologyMedical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 90 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link