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Analysis of reactivity determination methods in the subcritical experiment Yalina
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
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2005 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 554, no 1-3, 374-383 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different reactivity determination methods have been investigated, based on experiments performed at the subcritical assembly Yalina in Minsk, Belarus. The development of techniques for on-line monitoring of the reactivity level in a future accelerator-driven system (ADS) is of major importance for safe operation. Since an ADS is operating in a subcritical mode, the safety margin to criticality must be sufficiently large. The investigated methods are the Slope Fit Method, the Sjostrand Method and the Source Jerk Method. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with different nuclear data libraries. The results of the Slope Fit Method are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation results, whereas the Sjostrand Method appears to underestimate the criticality somewhat. The Source Jerk Method is subject to inadequate statistical accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 554, no 1-3, 374-383 p.
Keyword [en]
Yalina, reactivity determination, subcritical, MCNP, ADS, ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN SYSTEMS, KINETICS
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12677DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.07.058ISI: 000233978500033Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-27844541305OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12677DiVA: diva2:317896
Note
QC 20100621Available from: 2010-05-05 Created: 2010-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Source efficiency and high-energy neutronics in accelerator-driven systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Source efficiency and high-energy neutronics in accelerator-driven systems
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is being envisaged for the purpose of reducing the long-term radiotoxic inventory of spent nuclear reactor fuel. For this reason, the physics of sub-critical systems are being studied in several different experimental programs across the world. Three of these experiments have been studied within the scope of the present thesis; the MUSE experiments in France, the Yalina experiments in Belarus and the SAD experiments in Russia. The investigations of the MUSE experiments have focused on three different neutronic parameters; the neutron energy spectrum, the external neutron source efficiency and the dynamic neutron source response. It has been shown that the choice of external neutron source has negligible effect on the neutron energy spectrum in the core. Therefore, from this point of view, the MUSE experiments can be considered representative of an ADS. From the analyses of different reactivity determination methods in the Yalina experiments, it can be concluded that the slope fit method gives results in good agreement with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo method MCNP. Moreover, it was found that the Sjöstrand method underestimates keff slightly, in comparison with MCNP and the other investigated methods. In the radiation shielding studies of the SAD experiments, it was shown that the entire part of the effective dose detected at the top of the biological shielding originates from the proton-induced spallation reactions in the target. Thus, it can be concluded that the effective dose is directly proportional to the proton beam power, but independent of the reactivity of the sub-critical core. In order to study the energy gain of an ADS, i.e., the core power divided by the proton beam power, the proton source efficiency, ψ*, has been studied for various ADS models. ψ* is defined in analogy with the neutron source efficiency, φ*, but relates the core power directly to the source protons instead of to the source neutrons. φ* is commonly used in the physics of sub-critical systems, driven by any external neutron source (spallation source, (D,D), (D,T), 252Cf spontaneous fission etc.). On the contrary, ψ* has been defined only for ADS studies, where the system is driven by a proton-induced spallation source. The main advantages of using ψ* instead of φ* are that the way of defining the external source is unique and that ψ* is proportional to the energy gain. An important part of this thesis has been devoted to studies of ψ* as a function of different system parameters, thereby providing a basis for an ADS design with optimal properties for obtaining a high core power over beam power ratio. For instance, ψ* was found to decrease considerably with increasing spallation target radius.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. xiv, 136 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:46
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-427 (URN)91-7178-147-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-09-30, Sal FA32, AlvaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101005Available from: 2005-09-22 Created: 2005-09-22 Last updated: 2010-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. On measurement and monitoring of reactivity in subcritical reactor systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On measurement and monitoring of reactivity in subcritical reactor systems
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Accelerator-driven systems have been proposed for incineration of transuranic elements from spent nuclear fuel. For safe operation of such facilities, a robust method for reactivity monitoring is required. Experience has shown that the performance of reactivity measurement methods in terms of accuracy and applicability is highly system dependent. Further investigations are needed to increase the knowledge data bank before applying the methods to an industrial facility and to achieve license to operate such a facility. In this thesis, two systems have been subject to investigation of various reactivity measurement methods. Conditions for successful utilization of the methods are presented, based on the experimental experience. In contrast to previous studies in this field, the reactivity has not only been determined, but also monitored based on the so called beam trip methodology which is applicable also to non-zero power systems. The results of this work constitute a part of the knowledge base for the definition of a validated online reactivity monitoring methodology for facilities currently being under development in Europe (XT-ADS and EFIT).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. 72 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2010:18
Keyword
reactor, ADS, accelerator-driven systems, subcriticality determination, noise techniques, pulsed neutron source, reactivity monitoring
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12483 (URN)978-91-7415-623-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-12, FA32, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100621Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2011-06-09Bibliographically approved
3. Reactivity Assessment in Subcritical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactivity Assessment in Subcritical Systems
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Accelerator-driven systems have been proposed for incineration of transuranic elements from spent nuclear fuel. For safe operation of such facilities, a robust method for reactivity monitoring is required. In this thesis, the most important existing reactivity determination methods have been evaluated experimentally in the subcritical YALINA-experiments in Belarus. It is concluded that the existing methods are sufficient for calibration purposes, but not for reactivity monitoring during regular operation of an accelerator-driven system. Conditions for successful utilization of the various methods are presented, based on the experimental experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 85 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:13
Keyword
Reactor Physics
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4363 (URN)978-91-7178-611-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-05-25, FA31, Albanova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101115Available from: 2007-05-10 Created: 2007-05-10 Last updated: 2010-11-15Bibliographically approved

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