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Modelling of Physico-Chemical Phenomena between Gas inside a Bubble and Liquid Metal during Injection of Oxidant Gas
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
2010 (English)In: INT J CHEM REACT ENG, ISSN 1542-6580, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gas liquid reactors are extensively used in many metallurgical processes involving the refining of liquid metals. In these processes, reactions leading to the oxidation of various solutes in liquid metal often compete with each other, which ultimately determine the liquid metal composition. In the present paper, a model has been proposed to simulate the evolution of solute contents in a metallic melt considering mass transfer of solutes in the melt in the vicinity of the bubble, equilibrium at the gas-metal interface and gas composition evolution in the bubble during its ascent through the melt. The composition of solutes at the metal-gas interface in principle can be altered by changing the injected gas composition.

The model was applied to the case of oxygen injection through a lance into liquid steel-containing C and Cr, aiming sufficient decarburization without much oxidation of Cr to the slag. The Cr loss to the slag by oxidation is generally much more than that expected based on equilibrium thermodynamics applied to the bulk metal and gas. The actual Cr loss, as shown by the present model, is determined by the composition of solutes at the metal-gas interface rather than in the bulk. The effect of change of the partial pressure of oxygen in the bubble by replacing oxygen by carbon dioxide in the injected gas and the corresponding evolution of C and Cr contents in the melt was simulated. Some preliminary experiments were conducted to validate the model predictions. The frame work of the model is generic and can be extended to many gas-liquid metal reactors in liquid metal processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 8
Keyword [en]
gas injection, gas-liquid equilibrium, O-2-CO2 mixture, bubble, mass transfer, oxidation, DECARBURIZATION REFINING PROCESS, STAINLESS-STEEL, MATHEMATICAL-MODEL
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12983ISI: 000274473700005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77249120825OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-12983DiVA: diva2:320002
Note
QC 20110131Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2011-01-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigations on the Oxidation of Iron-chromium and Iron-vanadium Molten Alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigations on the Oxidation of Iron-chromium and Iron-vanadium Molten Alloys
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the progress of high alloy steelmaking processes, it is essential to minimize the loss of valuable metals, like chromium and vanadium during the decarburization process, from both economic as well as environmental view points. One unique technique to realize this aim, used in the present work, is the decarburization of high alloy steel grades using oxygen with CO2 in order to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen. In the present work, the investigation on the oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-vanadium molten alloys under CO2-O2 mixtures was carried out and presented in this dissertation.

For oxidation study on Fe-Cr molten alloy with CO2-O2 mixtures, on the basis of thermodynamic analysis, energy balance calculation and modeling results, experimental validation in laboratory was carried out, and later on, the oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts under controlled partial pressure of oxygen was investigated. Thermodynamics calculation and energy balance estimation demonstrated that, it is possible to use CO2 or CO2-O2 mixtures as decarburizers during EAF process and high initial carbon contents in the steel can be adopted at the beginning in order to reduce the cost.

A generic model has been developed to describe the overall process kinetics prevailing in metallurgical reactors containing liquid metal and gas bubbles. This model is general and can be extended further to consider any gas liquid reactions in any chemical engineering reactor, and especially the metallurgical ones, like AOD. In the present dissertation, the model is applied in predicting the evolution of Cr and C contents in a Fe-C-Cr melt during injection of different O2-CO2 mixtures. The related simulation results illustrated that CO2 is efficient in Cr retention.

In order to verify the modeling results, 1kg induction furnace experiments were carried out in the present laboratory. The results indicated that the predictions of the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the experimental results indicated that the Cr-losses can be significantly lowered by replacing the oxygen with CO2 in the injected gas, specifically for Fe-Cr-C melts with carbon levels higher than about 0.8 mass%. Subsequently, the oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts was investigated under different CO2-O2 mixtures. It is indicated that, the oxidation rate is controlled by the chemical reaction at the initial stage and the reaction rate can be expressed as  at the Cr range of 11-21 mass% in the Fe-Cr melt.

For oxidation study on Fe-V liquid alloy, the investigation of the oxidation kinetics was carried out under CO2-O2 mixtures, which is followed by the study on thermodynamic properties of vanadium containing slags. During oxidation of Fe-V melt, in the case of alloys with vanadium contents exceeding 10 mass%, there exists an incubation period before the chemical reactions prevail the process. In addition, the ‘incubation time’ increased with the increase of temperature and the vanadium content, whereas it decreased with the increase of oxygen partial pressure in the oxidant gas.

High-temperature mass spectrometric method was used to determine the activity of the vanadium oxide in CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-V2O3 slags, whereas, the oxidation states of vanadium in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-VOxslag system was studied by XANES method. The results indicated that, higher basicities stabilize higher vanadium oxidation state, whereas, higher temperature stabilizes lower vanadium oxidation state.

The present work, which was carried out within the ECO-STEELMAKING project funded by MISTRA via Jernkontoret is expected to lead to implementation of some modifications in high alloy steel production based on fundamental concepts towards more environment-friendly steel processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. viii, 58 p.
Series
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X
Keyword
Oxidation, High-alloy steelmaking, Retention, CO2-O2, Fe-Cr melt, Fe-Cr-C melt, Fe-V melt, Vanadium containing slags, Kinetics, Thermodynamics properties.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12955 (URN)978-91-7415-638-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-31, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC20100628

Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-20 Last updated: 2014-06-16Bibliographically approved

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