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Characteristics of Ti-Ce Complex Deoxidation Products in a Fe-20mass%Cr Alloy
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
Tohoku Univ..
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
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2009 (English)In: STEEL RES INT, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 80, no 6, 450-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The particle characteristics such as size distribution, composition and morphology have been studiedin an Fe-20mass%Cr alloy as a function of holding time at 1600°C. The alloy was deoxidised with Tiand Ce, followed by holding at 1600°C and cooling to 1400°C and quenching. The inclusion particleswere investigated on a surface of film filter with an open pore size of 0.05 or 5 μm after electrolyticextraction of the metal samples. Different electric charge and electrolytes (2%TEA and 10%AA) werecompared for extraction of the Fe-20mass%Cr alloy. 300 Coulombs with 10%AA was found mostsuitable for the electrolytic extraction of particles to determine the particle composition and sizedistribution. Most of the particles were found to be complex oxides containing Ti, Ce and Cr.Furthermore, the composition of the particles was found to change from a high Ce-content to a highCr-content with longer holding time at 1600°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 80, no 6, 450-456 p.
Keyword [en]
Fe-Cr alloy, Ti and Ce deoxidation, electrolytic extraction, particle size distribution, composition, FERRITIC STAINLESS-STEEL, INCLUSIONS, NIOBIUM, GROWTH, AL, ZR
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13046DOI: 10.2374/SRI08SP155ISI: 000267546800012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67749091108OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-13046DiVA: diva2:320331
Note
QC 20100524Available from: 2010-05-24 Created: 2010-05-24 Last updated: 2011-03-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Inclusions and/or Particles Engineering for Grain Refining Purposes in Ferritic Fe-20mass%Cr alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusions and/or Particles Engineering for Grain Refining Purposes in Ferritic Fe-20mass%Cr alloys
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Compared to more common used austenitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels contain very low amounts of the expensive alloying element Ni. In addition, they have good corrosion properties, but are sometimes suffering from poor weldability and bad mechanical properties. This is mainly due to the presence of large grains after casting and large grain growth during heat treatment or welding. Processes for reducing the grain size (grain refining) of metal alloys are widely known and proven before to be suitable for many alloys. A successful grain refining process can increase the strength of an alloy without decreasing the ductility. This can be achieved by different methods, such as rolling or cooling. In this work, the focus has been on studying the aspect from a metallurgist point of view, to analyse the possibilities to create small particles in the liquid stage to enhance the solidification. The focus has been on oxide and nitride formation for nucleation of smaller grains during solidification.

This study was made by forming particles, develop the analysis methods and thereafter to study the effect of particles on the structure of a ferritic stainless steel. The particles were formed by additions of Ti, Ce and Zr in to a liquid Fe-20mass% Cr alloy containing different amounts of oxygen and nitrogen. The electrolytic extraction technique was used to achieve a good understanding of the reaction processes and the particles size, number, composition and morphology. The grain sizes and the particles were then studied in as-cast samples as well as in specimens heat treated for 60 minutes at 1200, 1300 and 1400°C in a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). Also, based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) determinations and Thermo-Calc calculations, the precipitated particles were divided as primary and secondary particles. Thereafter, the grain refining potential was studied for each of these types.

In this work, particles engineering by using small particles have been proven suitable for the Fe-20mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel alloys. Although the work has been based on small-scale samples and experiments, the results show good tendencies with respect to grain refining as well as a clear relationship between the particles in the steels and the microstructures. It was found that Ti-Ce additions in Fe-20mass% Cr alloys resulted in complex oxides including Ti, Ce and Cr. These oxides were observed to have high agglomeration tendencies and therefore to form larger particles or clusters. The grain refining potential on the solidification structure was insignificant, despite a relatively large amount of particles. However, Ti-Zr additions in Fe- 20mass% Cr alloys on the other hand resulted in primary precipitated particles such as ZrO2 and ZrO2+ZrN. Furthermore, ZrN nucleated ferrite during solidification, which lead to a clearly observed grain refining effect. This effect was also increased with an increased number of particles. The amount of particles (primary and secondary) was also found to increase with an increased amount of nitrogen. Secondary particles (mostly TiN) were precipitated near grain boundaries, which lead to a location based pinning effect of the grain growth during heat treatment at 1200 °C. This pinning effect was increased by an increased nitrogen content and thereby an increased number of particles. Finally, the pinning effect was clearly reduced during heat treatment at 1400 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. x, 55 p.
Keyword
Inclusions, Particles, Grain size, High Cr, Ferritic, Grain refining, Solidification, Pinning effect, Stainless steel, Oxides, Nitrides
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13012 (URN)978-91-7415-599-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Note
QC20100524Available from: 2010-05-24 Created: 2010-05-24 Last updated: 2011-09-19Bibliographically approved

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