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Driver-Vehicle Interaction: Identification, Characterization and Modelling of Path Tracking Skill
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the dawn of the automobile, driver behaviour has been an issue. Driving can result in accidents that may harm not only the driver but also passengers and the surroundings. This calls for measures that restrict the usage of vehicles and to assist the individual driver to conduct the driving in a safe, yet practically efficient manner. The vehicles should therefore be both safe and intuitive, and preferably answer to thedifferent needs of all kinds of drivers.

Driving skill can be defined in many ways, depending on the objective of the driving task, but answer in some way to the question of how well the driver can conduct the driving task. To assist low skill drivers without compromising the driving demand for high skill drivers, it is of highest importance that vehicles are tested and designed to meet those needs. This includes both the testing activities in the vehicle design phase in general but also the configuration for active systems and preventive safety, preferable with settings that adapts to the skill of the individual driver.

The work here comprises the definition of skill and of driver recruitment procedures, scenario design, the development of an analysis method for objective measures, and the gathering of metrics to characterize the driver skill. Moreover, a driver model has been developed that makes use of driver skill characteristics. To gather the information needed, extensive multidisciplinary literature studies were conducted, as well as using field tests and test using an advanced moving base driving simulator. Here the focus is on path tracking skill, which is the main control aspect of driving, although the developed driving scenarios allow a varying degree of path planning, which is more related to regulation. The first simulator test was done with a very simple criterion fordriver selection, but the results gave a good insight into the variation between drivers ingeneral. For the following tests the recruitment procedure was refined to find drivers with high or low vehicle control and regulation skill, a recruitment that also was verified to really represent two different populations.

A method was defined that successfully identified sets of skill-related measures, with some variation in composition depending on the path tracking demand on the driver. Int he curving road scenario, for example, the highest number of skill-related measures is identified in the curves, which is reasonable since the straight segments do not require the same amount of active control from the drivers.

The driver model developed uses a quasi-static analytical description of the driver knowledge of the vehicle dynamics, but possesses the capability of nonlinear descriptions. The parameters in this model are mainly physical properties that easily can be related to the driving process. Metrics gathered are used for identification of the driver model setup for a double lane change scenario using an optimization routine, with adjusted parameter settings for different velocities.

With a subjective comparison of the recorded driving simulator data, the method is verified to enable driver skill settings for driver models. In addition, the method allows metrics to be gathered for driver skill identification routines, meeting the defined objectives of the project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , viii, 76 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2010:29
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13209ISBN: 978-91-7415-665-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-13209DiVA: diva2:321945
Public defence
2010-06-10, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC20100701Available from: 2010-06-03 Created: 2010-06-03 Last updated: 2010-07-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Study of path tracking skill and strategy using a moving base simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of path tracking skill and strategy using a moving base simulator
2007 (English)In: FISITA’06 World Automotive Congress, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13870 (URN)
Conference
FISTA Transactions
Note
F2006D075T QC20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2010-07-01Bibliographically approved
2. Methodology for finding parameters related to path tracking skill applied on a DLC-test in a moving base driving simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodology for finding parameters related to path tracking skill applied on a DLC-test in a moving base driving simulator
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, ISSN 1471-0226, E-ISSN 1741-5306, Vol. 11, no 1, 1-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this research is to develop and assess a method that can evaluate the relation of the driver's path tracking skill to a large number of vehicle parameters. The proposed methodology for comparison of measures under equal conditions is applied on test data from a double lane change test in a moving base simulator. Several measures are found to separate the recruited high and low skill driver groups, with the best results for the second part of the manoeuvre. Standard deviation qualifies for successful driver skill categorisation using commonly sampled data, e.g., steering wheel rate and angular acceleration.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13872 (URN)10.1504/IJVAS.2013.052271 (DOI)2-s2.0-84874730847 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from "Accepted" to "Published". QC 20131210

Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. A path tracking driver model with representation of driving skill
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A path tracking driver model with representation of driving skill
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 6, no 2, 145-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A flexible and intuitive non-linear driver model is proposed, which allows setting of physically relevant parameters for representation of both typical high and typical low skill drivers in a path tracking scenario with constant speed. The model is equipped with a relatively simple internal vehicle model and is divided into three levels of driving skill: perceptual, anticipatory and interpretational skill; decisional skill; and execution skill. Validation of the model is performed using the results from moving base driving simulator tests with the double lane change scenario described in ISO 3888-1:1999. The parameter sets used for the model configuration are selected based on physical relevance to the model and optimisation is carried out with a Nelder-Mead implementation, showing that the model is able to resemble the characteristics of the driver types in the scenario for 70 km/h, and with adjustments being able to represent drivers at other speeds.

Keyword
Behaviour, Characteristics, Cone track, DLC, Double lane change, Driver model, Driving simulator, Driving skill, Modelling, Moving base, Non-linear, Path tracking, Testing, Vehicle systems, VTI
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13874 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2011.042394 (DOI)2-s2.0-80052765516 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20120615Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2012-06-15Bibliographically approved
4. A path tracking scenario without preview for analysis of driver characteristics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A path tracking scenario without preview for analysis of driver characteristics
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13873 (URN)
Note
QC20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2010-07-01Bibliographically approved
5. Characteristics of path tracking skill on a curving road
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of path tracking skill on a curving road
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 67, no 1, 26-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this research work is to evaluate the relation of driver skill to measurements done when driving on a regular curving road, i.e., performing a primary driving task. A curving road scenario is designed using both clear sight and fog-limited sight distance. Measures are compared under equal conditions to identify the best separation of recruited driver types. A moving base simulator, VTI Simulator III, is used for the acquisition of driver metrics. Curves are found to be more reliable for identifying driver skill than straight road segments, and a number of measures show good performance in characterising driving skill under the tested conditions, both for clear sight and with the preview limited down to 30 m. The standard deviation proves to be very useful and qualifies for successful driver skill categorisation for commonly sampled data such as the lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2015
Keyword
Road, curve, fog, preview distance, driver skill;, path tracking, driving simulator, driver behaviour, characteristics, recruitment
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13875 (URN)10.1504/IJVD.2015.066473 (DOI)000352090500002 ()2-s2.0-84920463936 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC20100630

Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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