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A Study of Top Blowing with Focus on the Penetration Region
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2010. , viii, 38 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13307ISBN: 978-91-7415-675-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-13307DiVA: diva2:323510
Public defence
2010-06-04, Studio C, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100921Available from: 2010-06-11 Created: 2010-06-11 Last updated: 2010-09-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The effect of nozzle diameter, lance height and flow rate on penetration depth in a top-blown water model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of nozzle diameter, lance height and flow rate on penetration depth in a top-blown water model
2006 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 77, 82-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work aimed at investigating the penetration depth in a water model during lance blowing. A study of accessible literature was carried out to summarise previous work that had studied penetration depth. Based on the literature study an experimental plan was devised consisting of experiments focused on studying the effect of nozzle diameter, lance height and flow rate on the penetration depth. However, the primary focus was on studying the effect of small nozzle diameters on the penetration depth, which has not previously been reported in the literature. It was found that the results of the experiments in general agreed well with previous work, namely: the penetration depth increases with decreasing nozzle diameter, decreasing lance height and increasing gas flow rate. All equations known previously were used to calculate the penetration depth based on current experimental data. Thereafter, it was deduced which of the empirical relationships best fitted the experimental data. The jet momentum number was also determined from the experimental data and it was found that the penetration depth increased with an increased jet momentum number. However, for smaller nozzle diameters there was a considerable deviation. Therefore, a new correlation was suggested, heuristically derived from a macroscopic energy conservation consideration, and it was shown to result in better agreement between experiments and predictions for small nozzle diameters.

Keyword
Data acquisition, Energy conservation, Heuristic methods, Jets, Mathematical models, Nozzles, Lance, Penetration, Physical modelling, Blow molding
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24669 (URN)000236143600002 ()2-s2.0-33644638045 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100921Available from: 2010-09-21 Created: 2010-09-21 Last updated: 2012-02-24Bibliographically approved
2. A physical model study of swirl phenomena in a top blown bath
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A physical model study of swirl phenomena in a top blown bath
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2006 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 77, 234-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study is focused on swirl motion in a top blown water model, where a deep water swirl motion is observed. During the experiments, the top lance, with cylindrical nozzles, was placed above the water surface and thereby produced an external force on the bath. The effect on how different parameters, such as nozzle diameter and the distance between the bath surface and nozzle exit, i.e. the lance height, affect the swirl motion were studied. More specifically, the amplitude and period of the swirl as well as the starting and damping time of the swirl were determined. The amplitude was found to increase with an increased nozzle diameter and gas flow, while the period had a constant value of about 0.5 s for all nozzle diameters, gas flows and lance heights. The starting time for the swirl motion was found to decrease with an increased gas flow, while the damping time was found to be independent of gas flow rate, nozzle diameter, lance height and ratio of depth to diameter.

Keyword
Nozzles, Physical properties, Steel, Surface properties, Water, Bath, Lance, Physical modeling, Swirl, Swirling flow
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24670 (URN)000237794000002 ()2-s2.0-33646267693 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100921

Available from: 2010-09-21 Created: 2010-09-21 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved
3. A study of the decarburization rate in bulk and droplets during top lance blowing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of the decarburization rate in bulk and droplets during top lance blowing
(English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344XArticle in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24671 (URN)
Note
QS 20120326Available from: 2010-09-21 Created: 2010-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Characterization of metal droplets sampled during top lance blowing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of metal droplets sampled during top lance blowing
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2006 (English)In: Sohn International Symposium Advanced Processing of Metals and Materials: Vol 2 - THERMO AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES, WARRENDALE: MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOC , 2006, 351-362 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Laboratory trials were performed in an induction furnace to study droplet formation during lance blowing. Compressed air was blown on a molten iron bath consisting of iron alloyed with carbon and silicon. Steel droplets were collected using a specially designed sampler. The average steel droplet composition and the oxide layer thickness were determined using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersed spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration gradient of elements was deter-mined using a microprobe. It should be noted that a special technique had to be developed in order to prepare the droplet sample. The size distribution and composition of the droplets was also determined using the microprobe. It was found that the carbon content in the droplets was lower than the carbon content in the bulk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WARRENDALE: MINERALS, METALS & MATERIALS SOC, 2006
Series
Sohn International Symposium Advanced Processing of Metals and Materials, Vol 2 - THERMO AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: IRON AND STEEL MAKING
Keyword
iron droplets, carbon content, laboratory trials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24672 (URN)000241805400031 ()2-s2.0-33846074518 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Sohn International Symposium on Advanced Processing of Metals and Materials
Note
QC 20100921Available from: 2010-09-21 Created: 2010-09-21 Last updated: 2010-09-21Bibliographically approved

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