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An experimental study on the influence of particles on grain boundary migration
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 8, 2233-2238 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pinning effect of particles on grain boundary migration was studied in a Fe-20 mass % Cr alloy deoxidised with Ti and Zr. The different nitrogen contents (65, 248 and 490 ppm) were used to vary the number of precipitated inclusions. The specimens from equiaxed zones of metal samples with different particle densities were examined by in situ observations during a 60-min holding time at 1200 and 1400 degrees C in a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope. The change of particles pinning effect on the grain growth was described by an average grain size, (D) over bar (A), and the ratio between the perimeter and area of grains, P-GB/A(G). It was found that the pinning effect of particles (mostly complex Ti-Zr oxynitrides) on grain growth decreased with a decreased nitrogen content in the metal. Furthermore, the effect of particles decreased with an increased temperature of treatment, due to the reduction of the number of particles on the grain boundaries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 45, no 8, 2233-2238 p.
Keyword [en]
STAINLESS-STEEL, GROWTH, ALLOY, SURFACE, MICROSTRUCTURE, TRANSFORMATION, OXIDE, SIZE, TI
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13047DOI: 10.1007/s10853-009-3908-7ISI: 000274656400039Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77949873531OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-13047DiVA: diva2:323635
Note
2009 6th International Conference High Temperature Capillarity, Greece, Athens 6-9 May, 2009. QC 20100621Available from: 2010-06-11 Created: 2010-05-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Inclusions and/or Particles Engineering for Grain Refining Purposes in Ferritic Fe-20mass%Cr alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusions and/or Particles Engineering for Grain Refining Purposes in Ferritic Fe-20mass%Cr alloys
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Compared to more common used austenitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels contain very low amounts of the expensive alloying element Ni. In addition, they have good corrosion properties, but are sometimes suffering from poor weldability and bad mechanical properties. This is mainly due to the presence of large grains after casting and large grain growth during heat treatment or welding. Processes for reducing the grain size (grain refining) of metal alloys are widely known and proven before to be suitable for many alloys. A successful grain refining process can increase the strength of an alloy without decreasing the ductility. This can be achieved by different methods, such as rolling or cooling. In this work, the focus has been on studying the aspect from a metallurgist point of view, to analyse the possibilities to create small particles in the liquid stage to enhance the solidification. The focus has been on oxide and nitride formation for nucleation of smaller grains during solidification.

This study was made by forming particles, develop the analysis methods and thereafter to study the effect of particles on the structure of a ferritic stainless steel. The particles were formed by additions of Ti, Ce and Zr in to a liquid Fe-20mass% Cr alloy containing different amounts of oxygen and nitrogen. The electrolytic extraction technique was used to achieve a good understanding of the reaction processes and the particles size, number, composition and morphology. The grain sizes and the particles were then studied in as-cast samples as well as in specimens heat treated for 60 minutes at 1200, 1300 and 1400°C in a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). Also, based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) determinations and Thermo-Calc calculations, the precipitated particles were divided as primary and secondary particles. Thereafter, the grain refining potential was studied for each of these types.

In this work, particles engineering by using small particles have been proven suitable for the Fe-20mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel alloys. Although the work has been based on small-scale samples and experiments, the results show good tendencies with respect to grain refining as well as a clear relationship between the particles in the steels and the microstructures. It was found that Ti-Ce additions in Fe-20mass% Cr alloys resulted in complex oxides including Ti, Ce and Cr. These oxides were observed to have high agglomeration tendencies and therefore to form larger particles or clusters. The grain refining potential on the solidification structure was insignificant, despite a relatively large amount of particles. However, Ti-Zr additions in Fe- 20mass% Cr alloys on the other hand resulted in primary precipitated particles such as ZrO2 and ZrO2+ZrN. Furthermore, ZrN nucleated ferrite during solidification, which lead to a clearly observed grain refining effect. This effect was also increased with an increased number of particles. The amount of particles (primary and secondary) was also found to increase with an increased amount of nitrogen. Secondary particles (mostly TiN) were precipitated near grain boundaries, which lead to a location based pinning effect of the grain growth during heat treatment at 1200 °C. This pinning effect was increased by an increased nitrogen content and thereby an increased number of particles. Finally, the pinning effect was clearly reduced during heat treatment at 1400 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. x, 55 p.
Keyword
Inclusions, Particles, Grain size, High Cr, Ferritic, Grain refining, Solidification, Pinning effect, Stainless steel, Oxides, Nitrides
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13012 (URN)978-91-7415-599-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Note
QC20100524Available from: 2010-05-24 Created: 2010-05-24 Last updated: 2011-09-19Bibliographically approved

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