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Investigation of the oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts undercontrolled oxygen partial pressures
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
2012 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 6, 1476-1487 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In the current work, oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts by gas mixtures containing CO2 was investigated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The experiments were conducted keeping the melt in alumina crucibles, allowing the alloy melt to get oxidized by an oxidant gas. The oxidation rate was followed by the weight changes as a function of time. The oxidation experiments were conducted using various mixtures of O-2 and CO2 with = 10(-2) to 10(4) Pa. In order to understand the mechanism of oxidation, the wetting properties between the alumina container and the alloys used in the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments and the change of the alloy drop shape during the course of the oxidation were investigated by X-ray radiography.The experiments demonstrated that the oxidation rate of Fe-Cr melt increased slightly with temperature under the current experimental conditions, but it is strongly related to the Cr-content of the alloy as well as the oxygen partial pressure in the oxidant gas mixture, both of which caused an increase in the rate. For the Fe-Cr-C system, the oxidation rate has a negative relationship with carbon content, viz. with increasing carbon, the oxidation rate of the alloy melt slightly decreased. The chemical reaction was found to be the rate determining step during the initial stages, whereas as the reaction progressed, the diffusion of oxygen ions through slag phase to the slag-melt interface was found to have a strong impact on the oxidation rate. The overall impact of different factors on the chemical reaction rate for the oxidation process derived from the current experimental results can be expressed by the relationship: A model for describing the kinetics of oxidation of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C alloys under pure CO2 was developed. Simulation of the oxidation kinetics using this model showed good agreement with the experimental results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 43, no 6, 1476-1487 p.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13769DOI: 10.1007/s11663-012-9703-xISI: 000312342900025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84865097674OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-13769DiVA: diva2:327207
Note

Updated from "Submitted" to "Published". QC 20140127

Available from: 2010-06-28 Created: 2010-06-28 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigations on the Oxidation of Iron-chromium and Iron-vanadium Molten Alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigations on the Oxidation of Iron-chromium and Iron-vanadium Molten Alloys
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the progress of high alloy steelmaking processes, it is essential to minimize the loss of valuable metals, like chromium and vanadium during the decarburization process, from both economic as well as environmental view points. One unique technique to realize this aim, used in the present work, is the decarburization of high alloy steel grades using oxygen with CO2 in order to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen. In the present work, the investigation on the oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-vanadium molten alloys under CO2-O2 mixtures was carried out and presented in this dissertation.

For oxidation study on Fe-Cr molten alloy with CO2-O2 mixtures, on the basis of thermodynamic analysis, energy balance calculation and modeling results, experimental validation in laboratory was carried out, and later on, the oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts under controlled partial pressure of oxygen was investigated. Thermodynamics calculation and energy balance estimation demonstrated that, it is possible to use CO2 or CO2-O2 mixtures as decarburizers during EAF process and high initial carbon contents in the steel can be adopted at the beginning in order to reduce the cost.

A generic model has been developed to describe the overall process kinetics prevailing in metallurgical reactors containing liquid metal and gas bubbles. This model is general and can be extended further to consider any gas liquid reactions in any chemical engineering reactor, and especially the metallurgical ones, like AOD. In the present dissertation, the model is applied in predicting the evolution of Cr and C contents in a Fe-C-Cr melt during injection of different O2-CO2 mixtures. The related simulation results illustrated that CO2 is efficient in Cr retention.

In order to verify the modeling results, 1kg induction furnace experiments were carried out in the present laboratory. The results indicated that the predictions of the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. Meanwhile, the experimental results indicated that the Cr-losses can be significantly lowered by replacing the oxygen with CO2 in the injected gas, specifically for Fe-Cr-C melts with carbon levels higher than about 0.8 mass%. Subsequently, the oxidation kinetics of Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-C melts was investigated under different CO2-O2 mixtures. It is indicated that, the oxidation rate is controlled by the chemical reaction at the initial stage and the reaction rate can be expressed as  at the Cr range of 11-21 mass% in the Fe-Cr melt.

For oxidation study on Fe-V liquid alloy, the investigation of the oxidation kinetics was carried out under CO2-O2 mixtures, which is followed by the study on thermodynamic properties of vanadium containing slags. During oxidation of Fe-V melt, in the case of alloys with vanadium contents exceeding 10 mass%, there exists an incubation period before the chemical reactions prevail the process. In addition, the ‘incubation time’ increased with the increase of temperature and the vanadium content, whereas it decreased with the increase of oxygen partial pressure in the oxidant gas.

High-temperature mass spectrometric method was used to determine the activity of the vanadium oxide in CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-V2O3 slags, whereas, the oxidation states of vanadium in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-VOxslag system was studied by XANES method. The results indicated that, higher basicities stabilize higher vanadium oxidation state, whereas, higher temperature stabilizes lower vanadium oxidation state.

The present work, which was carried out within the ECO-STEELMAKING project funded by MISTRA via Jernkontoret is expected to lead to implementation of some modifications in high alloy steel production based on fundamental concepts towards more environment-friendly steel processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. viii, 58 p.
Series
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X
Keyword
Oxidation, High-alloy steelmaking, Retention, CO2-O2, Fe-Cr melt, Fe-Cr-C melt, Fe-V melt, Vanadium containing slags, Kinetics, Thermodynamics properties.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12955 (URN)978-91-7415-638-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-31, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC20100628

Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-20 Last updated: 2014-06-16Bibliographically approved

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