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Emission of possible odourous low molecular weight compounds in recycled biofibre/polypropylene composites monitored by head-space SPME-GC-MS
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5394-7850
2005 (English)In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 90, no 3, 555-562 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A disadvantage of the use of natural fibres to reinforce polypropylene is their poor thermal stability, which results in their degradation at processing temperatures of the composites. As a result of this, there is a formation of low molecular weight compounds that are responsible for undesirable odours. Head-space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used as a sample preparation technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the low molecular weight compounds in natural polypropylene/polypropylene composites after simulating degradation. Among the compounds found in the samples, there are fragments of PP chains as heptadecane, compounds from antioxidants such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, and p-tert-butylphenol, and compounds from biofibres ageing, such as ethylparaben and vanillin. Numerous carboxylic acids were also identified, being these most probably the source of the undesirable odours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 90, no 3, 555-562 p.
Keyword [en]
solid phase microextraction, polypropylene/cellulose composites, thermal degradation, solid-phase microextraction, chromatography-mass-spectrometry, volatile organic-compounds, low-density polyethylene, lignin model compounds, thermal-decomposition, packaging materials, identification, polypropylene, pyrolysis
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-15144DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.03.009ISI: 000232895000019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-25644439159OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-15144DiVA: diva2:333185
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strategies for improving mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for improving mechanical properties of polypropylene/cellulose composites
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The interest for polypropylene/cellulose composites has experienced a great increase in different applications such as car interiors and construction materials. Cellulose fibres are inexpensive, renewable, biodegradable, they present lower density and their mechanical properties can be compared to those of inorganic fillers. However, several factors must be considered when designing polypropylene/cellulose composites: the poor compatibility between the hydrophilic fibres and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrix leads to a weak interface, which has to be improved by coupling agents; the hydrophilic nature of the fibres makes them very sensitive towards water absorption, which also leads to a loss of properties and swelling with subsequent dimensional instability; the reduced thermal stability of cellulose fibres leads to degradation of the fibres at thermoplastic processing temperatures producing odours in the final material; and finally the properties of composites are greatly influenced by the structure, size and quality of the fibres.

Pulp fibres modified by different methods in order to enhance the compatibility fibre-matrix, were tested. Modified fibres led to improved mechanical properties and thermal behaviour when used in composites with recycled polypropylene.

Four different types of natural fibres were used as reinforcement in two different polypropylene types: virgin and recycled polypropylene. The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly dependent on the fibre loading and slightly dependent on the type of fibre. Moreover, water absorption kinetics was studied by the Fickian diffusion theory. After absorption, a remarkable loss of properties was observed.

Hydrolysed cellulose fibres showed a greater enhancing effect on polypropylene than non-hydrolysed cellulose fibres. This is attributed to the greater mechanical properties of reduced cellulose structures.

The effect of using cellulose fibres in PP/clay nanocomposites was also studied. The interaction between the clay particles and the cellulose fibres and the combined effect of both reinforcements were believed to be the main reasons for the enhancing properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 58 p.
Series
Trita-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2005:12
Keyword
Chemistry, polymer technology, chemical engineering, materials science, polymer, Kemi
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179 (URN)91-7283-998-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-04-29, Sal K1, Teknikringen 56, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101011Available from: 2005-04-27 Created: 2005-04-27 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

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