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Electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells with ionic liquid electrolytes
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University.
Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University.
2006 (English)In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-0728, E-ISSN 1873-2569, Vol. 586, no 1, 56-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells with different electrolytes have been investigated. The electrolytes were based on iodine-doped ionic liquids (diethylmethylsulphonium, dibutylmethylsulphonium or 3-hexyl-1-methylimidazolium iodide) or an organic solvent (3-methoxypropionitrile with LiI, I-2 and 1-methylbenzimidazole). The most viscous electrolytes showed a clear limitation in photocurrent, which can be attributed to a low diffusion coefficient for the triiodide that transports positive charge to the counter electrode. No essential difference was found in the electron transport properties of the solar cells, which appear to be dominated by the properties of the nanostructured TiO2 film. The intensity-modulated photocurrent response was strongly affected by current saturation. This is proposed being caused by recombination processes. The electron lifetime is depending on the type of cation used in the ionic liquid, where bulky, less absorptive cations seem to give longer lifetimes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 586, no 1, 56-61 p.
Keyword [en]
dye sensitization, solar cell, TiO2, electrolyte, ionic liquid, electron transport, nanoporous tio2, efficiency, diffusion, molten, salts
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-15346DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2005.09.011ISI: 000233521000008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-27744482655OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-15346DiVA: diva2:333387
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Potential electrolytes for dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells have been synthesized and their applicability has been investigated. Different experimental techniques were used in order to characterize the synthesized electrolytes, such as elemental analysis, electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, dynamic viscosity measurements, as well as impedance, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Some crystal structures were characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction.

In order to verify the eligibility of the ionic compounds as electrolytes for photoelectrochemical solar cells, photocurrent density/photovoltage and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements were performed, using different kinds of light sources as solar simulators. In electron kinetic studies, the electron transport times in the solar cells were investigated by using intensitymodulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. The accumulated charge present in the semiconductor was studied in photocurrent transient measurements.

The ionic liquids were successfully used as solar cell electrolytes, especially those originating from the diethyl and dibutyl-alkylsulphonium iodides. The highest overall conversion efficiency of almost 4 % was achieved by a dye-sensitized, nanocrystalline solar cell using (Bu2MeS)I:I2 (100:1) as electrolyte (Air Mass 1.5 spectrum at 100 W m-2), quite compatible with the standard efficiencies provided by organic solvent-containing cells. Several solar cells with iodine-doped metal-iodidebased electrolytes reached stable efficiencies over 2 %. The (Bu2MeS)I:I2-containing cells showed better long-term stabilities than the organic solvent-based cells, and provided the fastest electron transports as well as the highest charge accumulation.

Several polypyridyl-ruthenium complexes were tested as solar cell sensitizers. No general improvements could be observed according to the addition of amphiphilic co-adsorbents to the dyes or nanopartices of titanium dioxide to the electrolytes. For ionic liquid-containing solar cells, a saturation phenomena in the short-circuit current densities emerged at increased light intensities, probably due to inherent material transport limitation within the systems.

Some iodoargentates and -cuprates were structurally characterized, consisting of monomeric or polymeric entities with anionic networks or layers. A system of metal iodide crownether complexes were employed and tested as electrolytes in photoelectrochemical solar cells, though with poorer results. Also, the crystal structure of a copper-iodide-(12-crown-4) complex has been characterized

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. xii, 121 p.
Series
Trita-OOK, ISSN 0348-825X ; 1081
Keyword
Ionic liquid electrolytes, Photoelectrochemical solar cells
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-426 (URN)91-7178-122-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-09-30, D2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101013Available from: 2005-09-22 Created: 2005-09-22 Last updated: 2010-10-13Bibliographically approved

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