Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of crude sex pheromone gland extracts revealed that virgin Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), currant borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) females, produced 6 compounds, structurally related to sex pheromone components of clearwing moths. By comparison of retention times and mass spectra of natural products with corresponding properties of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as: (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E2,Z13-18:OAc), (3E,13Z)-octadeca-3,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-yl acetate (M-18:OAc), (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-ol (E2,Z13-18:OH), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-ol (M-18:OH) and octadecan-1-ol (18:OH) in the ratio 100:07:2.7:3.2:traces. The first 3 compounds were previously known to occur in the sex pheromone gland extracts of currant borers, while the last 3 chemicals are now reported for the first time. Trapping tests carried out in the black currant field revealed that E2,Z13-18:OAc, when tested separately, attracted S. tipuliformis males, while addition of E3,Z13-18:OAc to the main component increased the effectiveness of E2,Z13-18:OAc over seven times. The attractiveness of 6 component lures did not differ significantly from the one of the binary mixture, confirming that E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc in the ratio1.00:0.7 are essential sex pheromone components of S. tipuliformis. Trapping tests carried out at the dwelling place of Synanthedon scoliaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that, in addition to intraspecific synergistic effect, E3,Z13-18:OAc increased the specificity of the pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis, acting by intraspecific mode as an attraction antagonist against S. scoliaeformis males. By this way, it ensured the specificity of the sex attraction signal of the currant borer. Consequently, both compounds E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc have to be present in pheromone formulations used for monitoring and/or control of S. tipuliformis to avoid effecting non-target species. Other compounds identified from the sex pheromone gland of S. tipuliformis did not show any significant interspecific activity for males of S. scoliaeformis, however, they provide a basis to achieve specificity of a pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis and could act as attraction antagonists against other clearwing moth species which, like S. tipuliformis, employ E2,Z13-18:OAc as their sex pheromone component.
2006. Vol. 61, no 04-mar, 278-284 p.
pheromone specificity, synergist, attraction antagonist, clearwing moth, attractant