Root bead profiles in hyperbaric GTAW of X70 pipeline
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, ISSN 1053-5381, Vol. 16, no 2, 123-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
This investigation began with the goal of studying the root bead penetration profiles in hyperbaric GTAW welding of X70 pipelines. Such profiles may vary substantially depending on the wire and base metal chemical composition. Root beads were deposited with a pressure corresponding to 75-m seawater depth, and with a systematic increase of 10 A in the pulse current until burnthrough took place. The results obtained showed that the penetration profiles were different between the 2 wires included in the welding program. The largest penetration width was found for wire B with the highest sulphur content (0.013% S), with a maximum width of about 8-mm width on the pipe inside for 160 A. At pulse current levels of 120 to 170 A, the difference between the 2 wires was about 1 mm. With current beyond 180 A, the profiles approached similar values, followed by burnthroughs for both wires at 190 A. However, the welding parameters were already too hot at 180 A. These results are probably caused by a Marangoni convection in the weld pool. A high content of surface active elements (e.g., sulphur) is known to shift the How pattern, providing deeper penetration. In practice, small variations in the bead penetration profile may have large consequences during offshore tie-in welding. Cost-increasing repair operations may be required if nondestructive inspection later reveals poor root bead quality. Such actions require mobilisation of huge resources.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 16, no 2, 123-127 p.
hyperbaric (underwater) welding, subsea pipelines, X70 steel, mechanized GTAW, root bead penetration, surface active elements, Marangoni convection, weld shape variations, marangoni convection
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-15734ISI: 000238156400007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-15734DiVA: diva2:333776
QC 201005252010-08-052010-08-05Bibliographically approved