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Three-dimensional hybrid modeling based on a beam propagation method and a diffraction formula for an AWG demultiplexer
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3401-1125
2007 (English)In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 270, no 2, 195-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An efficient and accurate three-dimensional (3D) hybrid modeling, which combines a 3D beam propagation method (BPM) and the two-dimensional (2D) Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction formula, is developed to simulate the field propagation in an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) dernultiplexer. The 2D Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction formula is used for the simulation of the light propagation in the free propagation regions (FPRs). A 3D BPM in a polar coordinate system is used to simulate the light propagation in the transition region between the input FPR and the arrayed waveguides so that the coupling coefficients for the arrayed waveguides are calculated conveniently and accurately. For the simulation in the transition region between the arrayed waveguides and the output FPR, only the central arrayed waveguide and several adjacent ones are needed in the computational window of a standard BPM and thus the computation efficiency is improved. Finally, a flat-top AWG is designed and fabricated to verify the reliability of the present simulation method. The calculated and measured spectral responses are in a good agreement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 270, no 2, 195-202 p.
Keyword [en]
arrayed waveguide grating, hybrid method, Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction, beam propagation method, polar coordinate, flat-top, optimal-design, star couplers, guide
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-16377DOI: 10.1016/j.optcom.2006.08.051ISI: 000244157700014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33845657440OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-16377DiVA: diva2:334419
Note
QC 20100525. Tidigare titel: Three-dimensional hybrid method for efficient and accurate simulation of AWG demultiplexersAvailable from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Designs and simulations of silicon-based microphotonic devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designs and simulations of silicon-based microphotonic devices
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide, including the bending loss of a multimode bent waveguide and the birefringence of a rib waveguide, are analyzed by using a finite-difference method (FDM). Based on a detailed analysis for a multimode bent waveguide, an appropriately designed multimode bent waveguide for reducing effectively the bending loss of the fundamental mode is realized. The slab height and the rib width of an SOI rib waveguide are normalized with the total height of the silicon layer and a general relation between these two normalized parameters for a nonbirefringent SOI rib waveguide is established. Using this general relation, one can easily design a nonbirefringent SOI rib waveguide. The issue of multimode effect in the SOI-based microphotonic devices such as arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs), etched diffraction gratings (EDGs), and multimode interference (MMI) couplers is discussed in detail. Two kinds of taper structures are proposed for reducing the multimode effects in EDGs or MMI couplers. A bi-level taper is introduced to eliminate effectively the multimode effects in an EDG or an MMI coupler. The bi-level taper is very appropriate for an EDG demultiplexer since the Si layer is etched through simultaneously for both the grating and the bottom taper structure, and thus no additional fabrication process is required. For the simulation of an AWG demultiplexer, a fast simulation method based on the Gaussian approximation is proposed and two kinds of effective and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation modeling are developed. The first 3D model is based on Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction formula. To improve the computational speed, the 3D model is reduced to a two-dimensional (2D) one by integrating the corresponding field distributions in the AWG demultiplexer along the vertical direction under an assumption that the power coupled to the higher order modes in the free propagation region (FPR) is negligibly small. The equivalent 2D model has an almost the same accuracy as the original 3D model. Furthermore, a reciprocity theory is introduced for the optimal designof a special structure used for flattening the spectral response of an AWG demultiplexer. In the second 3D simulation method, we combine a beam propagation method (BPM) and the Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction formula. In this method, a 3D BPM in a polar coordinate system is used for calculating the light propagation in the region connecting the first FPR and the arrayed waveguides, and thus the coupling coefficient of each arrayed waveguide is calculated conveniently and accurately. In the simulation of the second FPR, due to the uniform arrangement of arrayed waveguides, only several arrayed waveguides are needed in the BPM window and thus the computational efficiency is improved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 61 p.
Series
TRITA-TET/DA, ISSN 0349-7836 ; 2005:01
Keyword
Electronics, waveguide, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), Elektronik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226 (URN)91-7178-076-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-06-03, sal E3, Osquars backe 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101004Available from: 2005-05-27 Created: 2005-05-27 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved

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He, Sailing

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