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Theoretical development of a high-resolution differential-interference-contrast optic for x-ray microscopy
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4394-0591
2008 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 2, 1132-1141 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the theoretical background and development of a differential-interference contrast (DIC) x-ray optic is presented. The single-element optic is capable of high-resolution phase contrast imaging and is compatible with compact sources. It is shown that an understanding of the coherence requirements in this type of imaging is imperative and is explained in detail. The optic is capable of a wavefront separation equal to the resolution of the optic which places only minor constraints on the object illumination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 16, no 2, 1132-1141 p.
Keyword [en]
phase-contrast
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17274DOI: 10.1364/OE.16.001132ISI: 000252479700064Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-38549088419OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-17274DiVA: diva2:335317
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phase-Contrast and High-Resolution Optics for X-Ray Microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase-Contrast and High-Resolution Optics for X-Ray Microscopy
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

X-ray microscopy is a well-established technique for nanoscale imaging. Zone plates are used as microscope objectives and provide high resolution, approaching 10 nm, currently limited by fabrication issues. This Thesis presents zone plate optics that achieve either high resolution or phase contrast in x-ray microscopy. The high-resolution optics use high orders of the zone plate, which alleviates the demands on fabrication, and the phase-contrast optics are single-element diffractive optical elements that produce contrast by Zernike or differential-interference contrast methods. The advantage of phase contrast in x-ray microscopy is shorter exposure times, and is crucial in the hard x-ray regime. Microscopy in the absorption‑contrast region of the water-window (2.34 - 4.37 nm) also benefits from these optics. The development of the optics for a laboratory soft x-ray microscope spans from theoretical and numerical analysis of coherence and stray light to experimental implementation and testing. The laboratory microscope uses laser-produced plasma-sources in the water-window and is unique in its design and performance. It will be shown that the laboratory microscope in its current form is a user-oriented and stable instrument, and has been used in a number of applications. The implementation of a cryogenic sample stage for tomographic imaging of biological samples in their natural environment has enabled applications in biology, and 3D x-ray microscopy of cells was performed for the first time with a laboratory instrument.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2010. x, 61 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 72
Keyword
Microscopy, X-ray optics, X-ray microscopy, Soft X-ray physics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26781 (URN)978-91-7415-834-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-17, FD5, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 15:42 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101130Available from: 2010-11-30 Created: 2010-11-26 Last updated: 2010-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory soft x-ray microscopy and tomography
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Soft x-ray microscopy in the water-window (λ = 2.28 nm – 4.36 nm) is based on zone-plate optics and allows high-resolution imaging of, e.g., cells and soils in their natural or near-natural environment. Three-dimensional imaging is provided via tomographic techniques, soft x-ray cryo tomography. However, soft x-ray microscopes with such capabilities have been based on large-scale synchrotron x‑ray facilities, thereby limiting their accessibility for a wider scientific community.

This Thesis describes the development of the Stockholm laboratory soft x-ray microscope to three-dimensional cryo tomography and to new optics-based contrast mechanisms. The microscope relies on a methanol or nitrogen liquid-jet laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer or zone-plate condenser optics, in-house fabricated zone-plate objectives, and allows operation at two wavelengths in the water-window, λ = 2.48 nm and λ = 2.48 nm. With the implementation of a new state-of-the-art normal-incidence multilayer condenser for operation at λ = 2.48 nm and a tiltable cryogenic sample stage the microscope now allows imaging of dry, wet or cryo-fixed samples. This arrangement was used for the first demonstration of laboratory soft x-ray cryo microscopy and tomography. The performance of the microscope has been demonstrated in a number of experiments described in this Thesis, including, tomographic imaging with a resolution of 140 nm, cryo microscopy and tomography of various cells and parasites, and for studies of aqueous soils and clays. The Thesis also describes the development and implementation of single-element differential-interference and Zernike phase-contrast zone-plate objectives. The enhanced contrast provided by these optics reduce exposure times or lowers the dose in samples and are of major importance for harder x-ray microscopy. The implementation of a high-resolution 50 nm compound zone-plate objective for sub-25-nm resolution imaging is also described. All experiments are supported by extensive numerical modelling for improved understanding of partially coherent image formation and stray light in soft x-ray microscopes. The models are useful tools for studying effects of zone plate optics or optical design of the microscope on image formation and quantitative accuracy in soft x-ray tomography.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. x, 76 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2011:03
Keyword
Microscopy, X-ray optics, Diffractive optics, Zone plates, X-ray microscopy, Soft X-ray physics, Tomography
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-29950 (URN)978-91-7415-874-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-02-25, FB42, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110221Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2011-02-21Bibliographically approved

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