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Phosphate removal by mineral-based sorbents used in filters for small-scale wastewater treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
2008 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, no 1-2, 189-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mineral-based sorbents Filtra P, Polonite (R), natural wollastonite and water-cooled blast furnace slag (WCBFS) were studied in terms of their PO4 removal performance. Results from a long-term column experiment showed that both Filtra P and Polonite (R) removed > 95% of PO4 from the applied synthetic solution, and that the used filter materials had accumulated several (1.9-19) g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus was removed also by natural wollastonite and WCBFS, but these materials were less efficient. Batch experiments on the used materials showed that the solubility PO4 was considerably larger than the one expected for crystalline Ca phosphates such as hydroxyapatite, and results from investigations with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on the Filtra P material showed that the formed P phase was not crystalline. These evidence suggest that a soluble amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the mineral-based sorbents; the apparent solubility constant on dissolution was estimated to log K-s = -27.94 ( 0.31) at 21 degrees C. However, since only up to 18% of the accumulated PO4 was readily dissolved in the experiments, it cannot be excluded that part of the phosphorus had crystallized to slightly less soluble phases. In conclusion, Filtra P and Polonite are two promising mineral-based sorbents for phosphorus removal, and at least part of the accumulated phosphorus is present in a soluble form, readily available to plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2008. Vol. 42, no 1-2, 189-197 p.
Keyword [en]
waste water, phosphorus, filter, filtra P, polonite, blast furnace, slag, wollastonite, phosphorus removal, calcium phosphates, plant-availability, slag, crystallization, recovery, spectroscopy, absorption, mechanisms, speciation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17311DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.06.058ISI: 000253045900018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-37349003901OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-17311DiVA: diva2:335355
Note

QC 20100525

Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Chemical reactions transfer contaminants from the aqueous to the solid phase. Phosphorus is removed from domestic wastewater by sorption to filter materials, which can then be recycled to agriculture as fertilisers and soil amendments. This thesis presents long-term column and field-scale studies of nine filter materials, particularly the novel product Polonite®. Phosphorus, nitro-gen and metals were removed by the mineral-based materials to varying degrees. Polonite and Nordkalk Filtra P demonstrated the largest phosphorus removal capacity, maintaining a PO4-P removal efficiency of >95%. Analysis of filter bed layers in columns with downward wastewater flow, showed that phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content was vertically distributed, with de-creasing values from surface to base layer. Polonite and Filtra P accumulated 1.9-19 g P kg-1. Nitrogen in wastewater was scarcely removed by the alkaline filter materials, but transformation from NH4-N to NO3-N was >90%. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) revealed that after wastewater treatment, slags and Polonite could increase plant production. Batch experi-ments and ATR-FTIR investigations indicated that amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the materials, so some of the accumulated PO4-P was readily available to plants. Low heavy metal contents occurred in the materials, showing that they can be applied as soil amend-ments in agriculture without contamination risks. A full-scale treatment system using Polonite as filter material showed an average PO4-P removal efficiency of 89% for a 92-week period, indicat-ing the robustness of the filter bed technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1043
Keyword
alkaline materials, heavy metals, mechanisms, nutrient removal, sorption, speciation modelling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4811 (URN)978-91-7415-024-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-16, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved

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