Comparison of extraction methods for sampling of low molecular compounds in polymers degraded during recycling
2008 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 44, no 6, 1583-1593 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
The demand for mechanical recycling of plastic waste results in an increasing amount of recycled polymeric materials available for development of new products. In order for recycled materials to find their way into the material market, high quality is demanded. Thereby, a complete and closed loop of polymeric materials can be achieved successfully. The concept of high quality for recycled plastics imply that besides a pure fraction of e.g. polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP), containing only minor trace amount of foreign plastics, knowledge is required about the type and amount of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds. During long-term use (service-life), products made of polymeric materials will undergo an often very slow degradation where a series of degradation products are formed, in parallel, additives incorporated in the matrix may also degrade. These compounds migrate at various rates to the surrounding environment. The release rate of LMW products from plastics depends on the initiation time of degradation and the degradation mechanisms. For polymers the formation of degradation products may be initiated already during processing, and subsequent use will add products coming from the surrounding environment, e.g. fragrance and aroma compounds from packaging. During recycling of plastics, emissions which contain a series of different LMW compounds may reach the environment leading to unwanted exposure to additives and their degradation residues as well as degradation products of polymers. Several extraction techniques are available for sampling of LMW compounds in polymers before chromatographic analysis. This paper reviews and compares polymer dissolution, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), super critical fluid extraction (SFE), soxhlet extraction, head-space extraction (HS), head-space solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), and head-space stir bar sorptive extraction (HSSE) as appropriate sampling methods for LMW compounds in recycled polymers. Appropriate internal standards useful for these kinds of matrices were selected, which improved the possibility for later quantification. Based on the review of extraction methods, the most promising techniques were tested with industrially recycled samples of HDPE and PP and virgin HDPE and PP for method comparison.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 44, no 6, 1583-1593 p.
extraction, recycled polymers, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), head-space solid phase micro, extraction (HS-SPME), head-space stir bar sorptive extraction (HSSE), supercritical-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, performance liquid-chromatography, soxhlet, extraction, solvent-extraction, gas-chromatography, additives, polypropylene, polyethylene
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17686DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.03.027ISI: 000257619000001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-44649086397OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-17686DiVA: diva2:335731
QC 201005252010-08-052010-08-052011-01-13Bibliographically approved