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Transformation and removal of nitrogen in reactive bed filter materials designed for on-site wastewater treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
2008 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 34, no 3, 207-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) should be removed and recycled from wastewater in order to reduce the nutrient load to recipient waters, avoid contamination of groundwater and conserve resources. Nitrogen removal and transformation were studied in domestic wastewater percolating in unsaturated conditions through 0.5 m long columns containing potential filter materials. Six materials (three types of slag, limestone, opoka, Polonite(R) and sand) were compared at a design loading rate of 85 L m(-2) d(-1) during 67 weeks. All materials transformed ammonium efficiently to nitrate (>98%). Apparent removal of inorganic N was shown only by the coarsest slag and by Polonite(R), possibly due to losses through volatilisation. All other filter materials leached nitrate at the column effluent. Total N content was highest in the surface layer of the column material, with decreasing values with depth. In contrast, carbon

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 34, no 3, 207-214 p.
Keyword [en]
Ammonium removal, Blast furnace slag, Column experiment, Nitrification, Polonite (R), flow constructed wetlands, phosphorus retention, ammonium removal, ion-exchange, sand-filters, subsurface flow, shell sand, denitrification, performance, effluent
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18027DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.08.006ISI: 000261456900002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-54049099102OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-18027DiVA: diva2:336072
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On-site wastewater treatment: Polonite and other filter materials for removal of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Chemical reactions transfer contaminants from the aqueous to the solid phase. Phosphorus is removed from domestic wastewater by sorption to filter materials, which can then be recycled to agriculture as fertilisers and soil amendments. This thesis presents long-term column and field-scale studies of nine filter materials, particularly the novel product Polonite®. Phosphorus, nitro-gen and metals were removed by the mineral-based materials to varying degrees. Polonite and Nordkalk Filtra P demonstrated the largest phosphorus removal capacity, maintaining a PO4-P removal efficiency of >95%. Analysis of filter bed layers in columns with downward wastewater flow, showed that phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen content was vertically distributed, with de-creasing values from surface to base layer. Polonite and Filtra P accumulated 1.9-19 g P kg-1. Nitrogen in wastewater was scarcely removed by the alkaline filter materials, but transformation from NH4-N to NO3-N was >90%. Pot experiments with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) revealed that after wastewater treatment, slags and Polonite could increase plant production. Batch experi-ments and ATR-FTIR investigations indicated that amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the materials, so some of the accumulated PO4-P was readily available to plants. Low heavy metal contents occurred in the materials, showing that they can be applied as soil amend-ments in agriculture without contamination risks. A full-scale treatment system using Polonite as filter material showed an average PO4-P removal efficiency of 89% for a 92-week period, indicat-ing the robustness of the filter bed technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 38 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1043
Keyword
alkaline materials, heavy metals, mechanisms, nutrient removal, sorption, speciation modelling
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4811 (URN)978-91-7415-024-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-06-16, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100907Available from: 2008-06-05 Created: 2008-06-05 Last updated: 2010-09-07Bibliographically approved

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